1985—2021年青藏高原典型湖泊水文特征及关键影响因素
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张嘉琪(1998—),女,内蒙古通辽人,硕士研究生,主要从事流域水文研究。E-mail:1376314639@qq.com

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P333.6

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国家自然科学基金项目(52279056)


Hydrological Characteristics and Key Influencing Factors of Typical Lakes in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau from 1985 to 2021
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    摘要:

    [目的] 青藏高原的湖泊是气候变化的重要指示器,其扩张或缩减亦对青藏高原自然环境产生重要影响。[方法] 选取位于青藏高原不同气候子区的3个典型湖泊(青海湖、羊卓雍错、乌兰乌拉湖),采用遥感监测手段,研究3个典型湖泊1985—2021年水文特征的时空变化规律,揭示关键气候因子的作用,并进一步探讨冰川和冻土对典型湖泊的影响。[结果] 研究期间,青海湖的面积和水位呈显著上升趋势,面积增长238.68 km2,水位增长1.32 m,空间上则向东西方向扩张;羊卓雍错湖泊面积呈先波动上升后减少趋势,面积和水位分别减少16.31 km2和3.25 m,在空间上整体由四周向中心的萎缩态势;乌兰乌拉湖面积和水位呈显著上升趋势,分别增长125.57 km2和8.12 m,扩张区域主要集中在南部。[结论] 在暖湿化环境下,降水增多和冰川冻土加速融化导致的湖泊扩张是青藏高原最为突出的环境变化特征,其中,降水量变化是影响青海湖和羊湖面积变化的关键因素,且面积变化和降水量具有滞后性;而乌兰乌拉湖水位上升的主要原因是气温升高引起冻土的季节融化。探索青藏高原湖泊面积的变化,对深入研究全球气候变化及地表水资源评估具有重要指导意义。

    Abstract:

    [Objective] The lakes of the Tibetan Plateau are important indicators of climate change, and their expansion or contraction also have an important impact on the natural environment of the Tibetan Plateau. [Methods] Three typical lakes located in different climatic sub-regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (Qinghai Lake, Yangzhuo Yongcuo, and Ulan Ula Lake) were selected to study the temporal and spatial variation of the hydrological characteristics of the three typical lakes from 1985 to 2021 by remote sensing monitoring methods, to reveal the role of key climatic factors, and to further explore the influence of glaciers and permafrost on the typical lakes. [Results] The area and water level of Qinghai Lake showed a significant upward trend, with an area increase of 238.68 km2 and a water level increase of 1.32 m. In space, it showed a trend of expansion in the east-west direction. The area and water level of Yangzhuo Yongcuo Lake first fluctuated and then decreased, decreasing by 16.31 km2 and 3.25 m respectively. In space, the overall area showed a shrinking trend from the surrounding to the center. The area and water level of Ulan Ula Lake showed a significant upward trend, increasing by 125.57 km2 and 8.12 m, respectively, and the expansion area was mainly concentrated in the south. [Conclusion] The analysis of key climate factors shows that the lake expansion caused by the increase of precipitation and the accelerated melting of glacial permafrost in the warm and humid environment is the most prominent environmental change characteristics of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The main reason for the rise in the water level of Ulan Ula Lake is the seasonal thaw of permafrost caused by rising temperatures. Exploring the changes in lake area on the Tibetan Plateau is of great guiding significance for in-depth research on global climate change and surface water resource assessment.

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张嘉琪, 张会兰, 刘雪妍.1985—2021年青藏高原典型湖泊水文特征及关键影响因素[J].水土保持学报,2024,38(3):140~149

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  • 收稿日期:2023-11-06
  • 最后修改日期:2023-12-15
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  • 在线发布日期: 2024-07-03
  • 出版日期: 2024-06-28