黄土丘陵区人工移植生物结皮集雨面的集雨效率及其抗侵蚀破损能力
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陈钧儒(1997—),男,江苏句容人,博士研究生,主要从事土壤物理与水土保持研究。E-mail:Chenjunru@cau.edu.cn

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S157.1

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国家自然科学基金面上项目(42077010);中国科学院“西部之光”人才培养引进计划项目(2019)


Performance of Artificially Transplanted Biocrusted Soil-surfaces in Rainwater Harvesting and Their Capability to Resist Erosion in the Hilly Region of Chinese Loess Plateau
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    摘要:

    [目的] 为探讨黄土丘陵区不同类型人工生物结皮集雨面的集雨效果及抗侵蚀破损能力。[方法] 以人工移植培养的藻类和藓类生物结皮为研究对象,以裸土为对照,分别对其进行野外模拟降雨和抗侵蚀试验(坡面冲刷、土壤静水崩解和单雨滴溅蚀试验),分析不同类型集雨面的集雨效率与土壤抗冲系数、土壤崩解速率和溅蚀量等抗侵蚀能力指标的差异。[结果] (1)生物结皮集雨面显著提高集雨效率。当雨强为100 mm/h时,相较于裸土,生物结皮集雨面的集雨效率显著提高33.3%(F=300.12,p<0.001)。(2)生物结皮显著降低产沙量并提高抗冲系数。与裸土相比,藻结皮和藓结皮的产沙量分别减少178.8%和364.6%,藓结皮和藻结皮的最大抗冲系数分别是裸土的4.6,2.8倍。(3)生物结皮显著降低土壤崩解速率和最大崩解率,且不同生物结皮类型差异显著。与裸土(6.46 g/min)相比,藻结皮和藓结皮的土壤崩解速率分别降低35.0%和60.2%;生物结皮平均最大崩解率较裸土降低23.8%。(4)生物结皮显著提高临界击穿雨滴动能并降低土壤溅蚀量。藓结皮和藻结皮的临界击穿雨滴动能分别是裸土(0.5 J)的3.9,21.9倍。同时,生物结皮较裸土(0.156 g)的单雨滴溅蚀量平均减少75.3%。[结论] 人工移植培养的生物结皮集雨面显著提高集雨效率和表层土壤的抗侵蚀能力,对旱区集雨措施的可持续利用和水土保持方面具有重要意义。

    Abstract:

    [Objective] The purpose of the study was to explore the rainwater harvesting effect and erosion damage resistance of different types of artificial biocrusted soil surfaces in the hilly region of Chinese Loess Plateau. [Methods] The biocrusted soil surfaces were taken as the research object, and the bare soil surfaces as the control. The study conducted field simulated rainfall and erosion resistance experiments (slope scouring, soil disintegration, and single raindrop splash erosion experiments) on them, respectively. Differences in the erosion resistance among different types of soil surfaces were analyzed. [Results] (1) Biocrusted soil surfaces significantly improved rainwater harvesting efficiency. At a rainfall intensity of 100 mm/h, the rainwater harvesting efficiency of the biocrusted soil surfaces was significantly increased by 33.3% compared to bare soil (F = 300.12, p < 0.001). (2) Biocrusted soil surfaces significantly reduced the sand production and increased the coefficient of erosion resistance. Compared with bare soil, the sand production of cyano and moss biocrusted soil surfaces was reduced by 178.8% and 364.6%, respectively. Compared to bare soil, moss and cyano biocrusts had 4.6 and 2.8 times, respectively, the maximum coefficients of resistance to washout. (3) Biocrusts significantly reduced the soil disintegration rate and maximum disintegration rate, and the differences were significant. Compared with bare soil (6.46 g/min), the disintegration rates of cyano and moss biocrusts were reduced by 35.0% and 60.2%, respectively and the maximum disintegration rate of biocrusts was reduced by 23.8%. (4) Biocrusts significantly increased the raindrop kinetic energy and reduced soil spallation. The critical kinetic energy of moss and cyano biocrusts was 3.9 and 21.9 times higher than that of bare soil (0.5 J), respectively. Meanwhile, the soil splash erosion of the biocrusts was reduced by 75.3% on average compared to bare soil (0.156 g). [Conclusion] Biocrusted soil surfaces significantly improved the erosion resistance and rainwater harvesting effect, which is of great significance in terms of sustainable utilization and soil and water conservation in dry areas.

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陈钧儒, 江子昊, 肖波, 窦韦强.黄土丘陵区人工移植生物结皮集雨面的集雨效率及其抗侵蚀破损能力[J].水土保持学报,2024,38(3):29~36

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  • 收稿日期:2023-12-23
  • 最后修改日期:2024-01-25
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  • 在线发布日期: 2024-07-03
  • 出版日期: 2024-06-28