近30年根河流域湿地景观格局变化及驱动因素分析
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国家自然科学基金项目(41971079,41671059);湖南省教育厅优秀青年项目(22B0517)


Analysis of the Changes in Wetland Landscape Pattern and Driving Factors in the Genhe Basin Over the Past 30 Years
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    摘要:

    [目的] 为了解根河流域湿地时空变化情况,明晰气候变化和土地利用变化对湿地景观格局的影响。[方法] 过分析根河流域1990—2019年间的湿地范围变化,再结合期间的气候变化状况来探究流域内湿地景观格局变化的驱动因素。[结果] 30年,根河流域湿地面积减少31.89%,斑块数量增加3.74%,景观破碎度指数增加4.48,流域湿地面积总体退化显著,流域湿地斑块数量总体有所增多。1990—2004年流域湿地呈现出显著退化趋势(p<0.05),湿地面积与年降水量存在显著正相关关系,景观破碎度指数与年降水量存在显著负相关,推断年降水量是导致根河流域湿地景观格局发生显著变化的主要因素;2004—2019年流域湿地退化趋势不显著(p>0.05),年平均气温呈现出不显著上升趋势(p>0.05),景观破碎度指数与年平均气温存在显著负相关,可能是气温升高导致流域内浅层多年冻土融化而将湿地连片,降低期间湿地破碎程度。[结论] 究结果对维护根河流域湿地生态系统的多样性与稳定性、促进湿地与非湿地间的协调互融性、保障湿地资源的可持续发展等具有重要的意义。

    Abstract:

    [Objective] In order to understand the spatiotemporal changes in the wetland of the Genhe Basin, the impacts of climate change and land use change on wetland landscape pattern was clarified. [Methods] The driving factors of changes in wetland landscape pattern in the Genhe Basin between 1990 and 2019 were investigated by analyzing the changes in wetland extent and combining them with climate change during the same period. [Results] The results showed that over the past 30 years, the area of wetlands in the Genhe Basin had decreased by 31.89%, the number of patches had increased by 3.74%, and the landscape fragmentation index had increased by 4.48. The overall degradation of wetland areas in the watershed was significant, while the overall number of wetland patches in the watershed had increased. From 1990 to 2004, wetland areas in the watershed showed a significant degradation trend (p<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between wetland areas and annual precipitation, while there was a significant negative correlation between landscape fragmentation index and annual precipitation. It was inferred that annual precipitation was the main factor causing significant changes in wetland landscape patterns in the Genhe Basin. From 2004 to 2019, the degradation trend of wetlands in the watershed was not significant (p>0.05), and the average annual temperature showed a non-significant increasing trend (p>0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between landscape fragmentation index and average annual temperature, which might be due to the melting of shallow permafrost in the watershed due to rising temperatures, leading to a decrease in wetland fragmentation during this period. [Conclusion] The research results are of great significance for maintaining biodiversity and stability of wetland ecosystems in the Genhe Basin, promoting coordinated and interactive wetland-dryland relationships, and ensuring sustainable development of wetland resources.

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宋小梅,常晓丽,丁辰.近30年根河流域湿地景观格局变化及驱动因素分析[J].水土保持学报,2024,38(2):294~303

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  • 收稿日期:2023-09-28
  • 最后修改日期:2023-11-08
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  • 在线发布日期: 2024-05-20
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