黄土塬区果园-农田交界带土壤水分分布及农田对果园的供水特征
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S152.7

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国家自然科学基金项目(42007011,41971049);中国科学院西部青年学者项目(XAB2018B08)


Soil Water Distribution and Water Supply Characteristics of Farmland to Apple Orchard in Their Adjacent Areas on the Loess Tableland
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    摘要:

    [目的] 为探明黄土高原南部塬区果园—农田镶嵌格局下土壤水分空间分布与协同利用特征。[方法] 选取长武塬区10龄、21龄和25龄苹果园(AO10、AO21和AO25)及其邻近农田,通过测定2021年雨季后果园—农田交界带有关位点的土壤含水量,定量计算农田土壤储水对果园耗水的贡献。[结果] 2021年降水量756 mm,为典型的丰水年份,农田和AO21、AO25果园降雨入渗深度在11月底分别达8.4,7.0,5.0 m。AO10果园—农田交界带以4 m深度为界,其下部土壤含水量较上部大,4—10 m土层平均含水量为25.5%;AO21果园0—7 m土层平均含水量为22.1%,7—10 m为15.0%;AO25果园0—5 m土层平均含水量为20.9%,5—10 m土层平均含水量为13.6%,AO21和AO25果园分别在7.0,5.0 m以下仍存在土壤干层。水平方向上,AO21、AO25果园利用邻近农田土壤水分的距离分别达到5,8 m,农果交界面上农田向果园的供水量,当以干层上界划分土壤剖面,其上为表观供水量,2个果园分别为0.08,0.25 m3/m2;其下为实际供水量,分别为0.45,0.81 m3/m2。[结论] 黄土塬区果园和农田镶嵌布局是一种较为合理的利用结构,在其规划管理中应考虑果树年限及其相邻农田宽度等因素,研究结果有助于推进区域土壤水资源的可持续利用及其空间优化。

    Abstract:

    [Objective] To investigate the spatial distribution and cooperative utilization characteristics of soil water under the orchard-farmland mosaic pattern in the southern Loess Tableland. [Methods] The 10-year-old, 21-year-old, and 25-year-old apple orchards (AO10, AO21, and AO25) and their adjacent farmland were selected in Changwu tableland were selected to quantitatively calculate the contribution of soil water storage to water consumption of orchard. By measuring the soil water content at relevant sites in the orchard-farmland interface zone after the rainy season in 2021. [Results] The precipitation in 2021 is 756 mm, which was a typical wet year. The rainfall infiltration depth of farmland and AO21, AO25 orchards reached 8.4, 7.0, and 5.0 m at the end of November, respectively. AO10 orchard-farmland boundary zone is 4 m deep, the soil water content in the lower part is larger than that in the upper part, and the average soil water content was 25.5% in the 4—10 m soil layer. In AO21 orchard, the average soil water content of the 0—7 m soil layer was 22.1%, and that of the 7—10 m soil layer was 15.0%. the average soil water content of the 0—5 m soil layer of AO25 orchard was 20.9%, and that of 5—10 m was 13.6%. The soil dry layer of AO21 and AO25 orchard was below 7.0 and 5.0 m, respectively. In the horizontal direction, the distance of soil water used by AO21 and AO25 orchards from adjacent farmland reached 5 and 8 m, respectively, and the water supply from fields to orchards at the agro-fruit interface was 0.08 and 0.25 m3/m2 when the soil profile was divided by the upper boundary of the dry layer. Below is the actual water supply, which is 0.45 and 0.81 m3/m2, respectively. [Conclusion] The mosaic layout of apple orchards and farmland in the Loess tableland region is a reasonable utilization structure, and factors such as the age of apple trees and the width of adjacent farmland should be considered in land planning and management. The research results will contribute to promote the sustainable utilization and spatial optimization of regional soil water resources.

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韩晓阳,王亚萍,朱元骏,刘文兆.黄土塬区果园-农田交界带土壤水分分布及农田对果园的供水特征[J].水土保持学报,2024,38(2):197~204,215

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  • 收稿日期:2023-09-03
  • 最后修改日期:2023-10-27
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  • 在线发布日期: 2024-05-20
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