积雪变化对东北农田黑土盐基离子及有效硅铝含量的影响
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S153.6

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国家自然科学基金项目(52179035,51579045);黑龙江省自然科学基金项目(YQ2019E004)


Effects of Snow Cover Change on the Content of Base Ions and Available Silicon and Aluminum of Black Soil in Northeast China
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    摘要:

    [目的] 为探究冬季积雪深度变化下东北农田黑土盐基离子及有效硅铝含量的季节性变化特征。[方法] 采用人工控制积雪深度的方法,通过测定除雪处理组(SR)、减雪处理组(SL)、自然积雪对照组(C)、增雪处理组(SA)的东北农田黑土环境因子(温湿度、含水率、pH、总有机碳)、盐基离子、有效硅以及活性铝,分析土壤盐基离子及有效硅铝的含量变化过程,以及两者对土壤环境因子的响应关系。[结果] 积雪深度的降低使季节性雪被覆盖下黑土受到积雪的保温作用减弱,0—30 cm土壤温度及湿度(未冻水含量)显著下降,使水盐运移过程中未冻水携带的HCO3-含量减少,土壤平均pH受HCO3-含量影响分别变化-0.06,-0.04,-0.02,0.01。土壤的碱性降低,低价阳离子对高价阳离子在土壤胶体吸附电位的置换能力增强,使得交换态一价阳离子(Na+、K+)含量升高,同时使交换态及碳酸盐态二价阳离子(Ca2+、Mg2+)含量降低。碳酸盐态二价阳离子与交换态Na+分别对TOC含量构成正向和负向的影响,使土壤平均总有机碳(TOC)含量随积雪深度的降低分别增长0.87,1.09,1.32,1.48 g/kg。盐基离子与土壤pH、TOC的相互影响关系使在积雪深度降低的条件下土壤pH与TOC含量降低,进而对土壤有效硅铝含量构成间接影响。TOC含量的降低削弱了土壤对低活性腐殖酸铝(Al-HA)的固持作用,pH的降低促进低活性铝向高活性交换态铝(Ex-Al)与单聚体羟基铝(Hy-Al)的转化,土壤铝毒性提升,同时促进有效硅的溶解,造成土壤硅的流失。[结论] 气候变暖引起的中高纬度地区季节性积雪覆盖面积减少将影响冬季东北地区农田黑土的物质能量分布状态,并由此改变生长季节农作物的生长发育环境,研究提示为冬季东北黑土区土壤矿质元素的季节性变化过程提供了一定的科学依据。

    Abstract:

    [Objective] In order to investigate the seasonal changes of base ions and available silicon and aluminum contents of black soil in northeast China under the change of snow depth in winter. [Methods] The environmental factors (temperature and humidity, moisture content, pH, total organic carbon), base ions, available silicon and activated aluminum of black soil in northeast China farmland were measured in snow removal group (SR), snow reduction group (SL), natural snow control group (C) and snow enhancement group (SA) were determined by artificial control of snow depth. The change process of the content of base ions and available silicon and aluminum in soil and their response to soil environmental factors were analyzed. [Results] The decrease of snow depth weakened the heat preservation effect of snow on black soil under seasonal snow cover, and the temperature and humidity (unfrozen water content) of 0—30 cm soil decreased significantly, which reduced the HCO3- content carried by unfrozen water during water and salt migration. The average pH of the soil was affected by the HCO3- content by the changes of -0.06, -0.04, - 0.02, and 0.01, respectively. With the decrease of soil alkalinity, the substitution ability of low-priced cations to high-priced cations in soil colloidal adsorption potential was enhanced, which increased the contents of exchange monvalent cations (Na+, K+), and decreased the contents of exchange and carbonate bivalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+). Carbonate bivalent cation and exchange Na+ had positive and negative effects on TOC content, respectively, and the mean total organic carbon (TOC) content increased by 0.87, 1.09, 1.32 and 1.48 g/kg with the decrease of snow depth, respectively. The interaction between base ions and soil pH and TOC resulted in the decrease of soil pH and TOC content under the condition of reduced snow depth, which had an indirect effect on soil available silicon and aluminum content. The decrease of TOC content weakened the soil retention of low-active aluminum humate (Al-HA), and the decrease of pH promoted the conversion of low-active aluminum to high-active exchange aluminum (Ex-Al) and monomer hydroxyl aluminum (Hy-Al), which increased the soil aluminum toxicity, and promoted the dissolution of available silicon, resulting in the loss of soil silicon. [Conclusion] The reduction of seasonal snow cover in the middle and high latitudes caused by climate warming will affect the material and energy distribution of the black soil in Northeast China in winter, and thus change the growth and development environment of crops in the growing season. This study provided a certain scientific basis to reveal the seasonal variation process of soil mineral elements in the black soil region in Northeast China in winter.

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王子龙,滕怀淏,姜秋香,刘传兴,单家珣,王凯.积雪变化对东北农田黑土盐基离子及有效硅铝含量的影响[J].水土保持学报,2024,38(2):147~156,164

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  • 收稿日期:2023-06-16
  • 最后修改日期:2023-07-27
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  • 在线发布日期: 2024-05-20
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