黄河中游多沙粗沙区土壤水蚀时空变化及动态驱动力分析
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S157.1

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国家重点研发计划项目(2022YFF1300804)


Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Evolution and Dynamic Driving Force of Soil Water Erosion in the Middle Reaches of the Yellow River in the Rich and Coarse Sediment Area
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    摘要:

    [目的] 揭示黄河中游多沙粗沙区2000—2020年土壤水蚀时空演变特征,分析其动态驱动力。[方法] 基于RUSLE模型,计算多沙粗沙区逐年土壤水蚀模数,分析2000年、2005年、2010年、2015年、2020年土壤水蚀强度变化特征,利用Sen+MK趋势分析法结合Hurst指数探究土壤水蚀模数时空变化特征,使用参数最优地理探测器中的因子探测与交互探测量化年平均降水、海拔、坡度、植被覆盖度、土地利用/覆盖类型、土壤类型6个因子对土壤水蚀空间分布的解释力。[结果] (1)2000—2020年5期多沙粗沙区中度、强烈、极强烈、剧烈侵蚀面积分别下降48.09%,77.93%,83.01%,36.13%;微度和轻度侵蚀面积分别上升46.22%,0.33%。现阶段多沙粗沙区以微度和轻度侵蚀为主,二者面积占比分别为62.49%,42.07%。(2)多沙粗沙区土壤水蚀模数总体年际变化呈波动显著下降趋势,由2000年的2 214.89 t/(km2·a)降至2020年的1 169.44 t/(km2·a)。2000—2020年多沙粗沙区土壤水蚀模数空间变化趋势主要表现为下降状态,面积占比为76.13%,未来仍将以下降状态为主,面积占比为62.50%。(3)6个因子间的交互作用解释力均大于单因子,且主要表现为非线性增强和双因子增强;多沙粗沙区土壤水蚀2000—2005年由降水和土地利用/覆盖主导,2010—2020年由植被覆盖度和土地利用/覆盖主导。[结论] 2000—2020年多沙粗沙区土壤水蚀状况不断好转;未来共有62.50%的区域土壤水蚀模数为持续下降与未来下降状态,但仍有20.44%的区域存在上升的潜在风险;退耕还林还草工程改变土地利用/覆盖格局,使得多沙粗沙区土壤水蚀驱动力呈动态变化;在今后多沙粗沙区土壤水蚀防治,优化土地利用/覆盖格局时需要充分考虑坡度因子。

    Abstract:

    [Objective] To reveal the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of soil water erosion in the middle reaches of the Yellow River in the rich and coarse sediment area from 2000 to 2020, and analyze its dynamic driving force. [Methods] Based on the RUSLE model, the annual soil water erosion modulus in the rich and coarse sediment area was calculated, and the variation characteristics of soil water erosion intensity in 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020 were analyzed. The spatial-temporal characteristics of soil water erosion modulus were explored by using the Sen+MK trend analysis method combined with the Hurst index, and the factor probing in the parameter-optimal geographical detector with the interactive probing were used to quantify the explanatory power of six factors, namely average annual precipitation, elevation, slope, vegetation cover, land use/cover type, and soil type, on the spatial distribution of soil water erosion. [Results] (1) The area of moderate, intense, extremely intense and severe erosion in the rich and coarse sediment area decreased by 48.09%, 77.93%, 83.01%, and 36.13%, respectively, and the area of slight and mild erosion increased by 46.22% and 0.33%, respectively, in the five periods from 2000 to 2020. At the present stage, the sandy and coarse sandy area was dominated by slight and mild erosion, and the proportion of the two was 62.49% and 42.07% respectively. (2) The overall inter-annual change of soil water erosion modulus in the rich and coarse sediment area showed a fluctuating and significant downward trend, from 2 214.89 t/(km2·a) in 2000 to 1 169.44 t/(km2·a) in 2020. The spatial variation trend of soil water erosion modulus in the rich and coarse sediment area from 2000 to 2020 was mainly in a decreasing state, accounting for 76.13% of the total area, and would continue to be in a decreasing state in the future, with an area share of 62.50%. (3) The explanatory power of the interactions among the six factors was greater than that of single factor, and it was mainly manifested as nonlinear enhancement and double-factor enhancement; soil water erosion in the rich and coarse sediment area was dominated by precipitation and land use/cover in 2000—2005, and by vegetation cover and land use/cover in 2010—2020. [Conclusion] Soil water erosion condition in the rich and coarse sediment area will be improved continuously from 2000 to 2020; in the future, the soil water erosion modulus of 62.50% of the regions will continue to decline or decline in the future, but there is still a potential risk of increase in 20.44% of the area; the land use/cover pattern has changed by the project of returning farmland to forests and grassland, which made the soil water erosion in the rich and coarse sediment area. The driving force of soil water erosion in the rich and coarse sediment area changes dynamically; the slope factor needs to be fully considered when optimizing the land use/cover pattern for the prevention and control of soil water erosion in the rich and coarse sediment area in the future.

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张卓佩,牛健植,樊登星,赵春光,苗禹博,杜洲,杨智勇.黄河中游多沙粗沙区土壤水蚀时空变化及动态驱动力分析[J].水土保持学报,2024,38(2):85~96

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  • 收稿日期:2023-07-26
  • 最后修改日期:2023-09-06
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  • 在线发布日期: 2024-05-20
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