侵蚀性降雨对黑土坡耕地土壤侵蚀特征的影响
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S157.1

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国家重点研发计划项目(2021YFD1500800);国家自然科学基金项目(41701313)


Effects of Erosive Rainfall on Soil Erosion Characteristics of Black Sloping Farmland
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    摘要:

    [目的] 降雨是黑土坡耕地水力侵蚀的动力来源,研究天然降雨条件下坡耕地土壤侵蚀特征对水土流失防治具有重要意义。[方法] 基于黑龙江省海伦市光荣小流域2021—2022年不同坡度(3°,5°和7°)顺坡垄作径流小区观测的43场次侵蚀性降雨事件,采用K-Mean聚类法对比分析不同雨型和坡度下径流与输沙特征,并探讨影响坡耕地径流与输沙的影响因素。[结果] 研究区以短历时、大雨强、小雨量的降雨(雨型3)为主,其次是中等历时、中等雨强、中等雨量的降雨(雨型2),长历时、小雨强、大雨量的降雨(雨型1)极少发生。相同雨型下,累积径流深和输沙量均随坡度的增加而增大。相同坡度下,不同雨型对累积径流深响应不同,累积输沙量整体表现为雨型3贡献最高(50.90%~57.90%),雨型2次之(37.60%~44.10%),雨型1最低。雨型2事件降雨侵蚀力和坡度对径流深产生直接影响,径流深和坡度对输沙量产生直接影响。雨型3事件降雨侵蚀力通过直接和间接作用影响径流深,进而影响输沙量。[结论] 对所有雨型事件,降雨侵蚀力和坡度是影响坡耕地径流深的主控因子,径流深和坡度是影响坡耕地输沙量的主控因子。

    Abstract:

    [Objective] Rainfall is the driving force of hydraulic erosion in black soil sloping farmland. It is of great significance to study soil erosion characteristics under natural rainfall conditions for soil erosion control. [Methods] Based on 43 erosive rainfall events observed at different ridge-row runoff plots (3°, 5° and 7°) along the slope in Guangrong Small Watershed, Hailun City, Heilongjiang Province during 2021—2022, K-Mean clustering method was used to compare the characteristics of runoff and sediment transport under different rain patterns and slopes, and the influencing factors on runoff and sediment transport were discussed. [Results] The rainfall of short duration, heavy rain and light rainfall (rain type 3) is the main one, followed by the rainfall of medium duration, medium rain intensity and medium rainfall (rain type 2), and the rainfall of long duration, light rain intensity and heavy rainfall (rain type 1) rarely occurs. Under the same rain pattern, the cumulative runoff depth and sediment transport increased with the increase of slope. Under the same slope, different rainfall types have different responses to cumulative runoff depth. Overall, rainfall type 3 has the highest contribution (50.90%~57.90%), rainfall type 2 has the second contribution (37.60%~44.10%), and rainfall type 1 has the lowest. In the event of rain type 2, rainfall erosivity and slope have direct influence on runoff depth, and runoff depth and slope have direct influence on sediment transport. In the event of rain type 3, rainfall erosivity affects runoff depth and then sediment transport through direct and indirect effects. [Conclusion] For all rainfall-type events, rainfall erosivity and slope are the main controlling factors affecting the runoff depth, and the runoff depth and slope are the main controlling factors affecting the sediment transport.

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丁贵惠,任忠政,胡伟,陈渊,张兴义.侵蚀性降雨对黑土坡耕地土壤侵蚀特征的影响[J].水土保持学报,2024,38(2):47~56

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  • 收稿日期:2023-08-19
  • 最后修改日期:2023-10-05
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  • 在线发布日期: 2024-05-20
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