有机肥等氮替代化肥对春玉米生长、产量和水肥利用效率的影响
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1.延安大学;2.延安大学生命科学学院

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国家自然科学基金(52169014, 42107379 );延安大学研究生教育创新计划项目(YCX2023077);延安大学大学生创新计划项目(S202310719019)


Effects of organic fertilizers and other nitrogen replacements for chemical fertilizers on growth, yield and water and fertilizer use efficiency of spring maize
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College of Life Sciences,Yan ''''an University,Yan ''an Shaanxi

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    摘要:

    为探究不同施氮量下有机肥等氮替代化肥对陕北旱区春玉米生长、产量和水肥利用效率的影响,采用多元回归分析和三维拟合模型,以期建立陕北地区春玉米种植最佳氮肥管理模式。本试验设置3个施氮水平(N1:240 kg/hm2、N2:180 kg/hm2和N3:120 kg/hm2)和5个有机肥等氮替代比例(R0:100%化肥氮、R12.5:12.5%有机肥氮+87.5%化肥氮、R25:25%有机肥氮+75%化肥氮、R37.5:37.5%有机肥氮+62.5%化肥氮和R50:50%有机肥氮+50%化肥氮),共15个处理。在春玉米主要生育期测定春玉米生长和产量及产量构成要素,计算生育期耗水量(ET)、水分利用效率(WUE)、氮肥偏生产力(NPFP)和经济效益。研究结果表明,Logistic函数对春玉米干物质累积量具有较高的拟合度,R12.5处理可推迟干物质快速积累期的起点、终点和最大值出现的时间,N2处理可提升干物质累积量的日最大增长速率。施氮量和替代比例对春玉米干物质累积量、产量及构成要素、ET、NPFP和经济效益有显著影响(P<0.05),两者交互作用对穗长、穗粗和ET的影响显著(P<0.05)。N2处理的平均干物质累积量、产量、ET、净收入分别比N1和N3处理高5.58%和15.80%、4.25%和16.76%、4.96%和3.41%、8.76%和29.42%。R25处理可显著提升干物质累积量、产量及构成要素、ET、WUE、NPFP、净收入和产投比。随着施氮量的增加,WUE持续上升,而NPFP持续降低。处理N2R25的干物质累积量和ET最高,处理N2R37.5的产量、净收入和产投比最高。春玉米产量与干物质累积量、ET、WUE、净收入和产投比呈显著正相关关系。综合考虑春玉米干物质累积量、产量、WUE和净收入,优化氮肥管理方案,得到在施氮量和替代比例区间分别为160~230 kg/hm2和8~38%时,优化区间所得到的NPFP在66.68~93.98 kg/kg,春玉米干物质累积量、产量、WUE和净收入均可达到最优值的95%以上。

    Abstract:

    To investigate the effects of organic fertilizers and other nitrogen replacements for chemical fertilizers under different nitrogen application rates on the growth, yield and water-fertilizer use efficiency of spring maize in the dry zone of northern Shaanxi, multiple regression analysis and three-dimensional fitting models were used to establishing an optimal nitrogen management model for spring maize cultivation in northern Shaanxi. In this experiment, three nitrogen application levels were (N1: 240 kg/hm2, N2: 180 kg/hm2 and N3: 120 kg/hm2) and five organic fertilizers and other nitrogen replacements for chemical fertilizers ratios were (R0: 100% fertilizer nitrogen, R12.5: 12.5% organic fertilizer nitrogen + 87.5% chemical fertilizer nitrogen, R25: 25% organic fertilizer nitrogen + 75% chemical fertilizer nitrogen, R37.5: 37.5% organic fertilizer N + 62.5% chemical fertilizer N and R50: 50% organic fertilizer N + 50% chemical fertilizer N), a total of 15 treatments. During the main reproductive period of spring maize, spring maize growth and yield and yield components were measured, and water consumption (ET), water use efficiency (WUE), nitrogen fertilizer partial productivity (NPFP) and economic benefits were calculated. The results showed that the ????????????? Logistic function had a high fit for dry matter accumulation in spring maize, the R12.5 treatment delayed the start, the end and the appearance of the maximum value of the period of rapid dry matter accumulation, and the N2 treatment enhanced the maximum daily growth rate of dry matter accumulation. Nitrogen application and replacement ratio significantly affected dry matter accumulation, yield and components, ET, NPFP and economic efficiency of spring maize (P<0.05), and the interaction significantly affected ear length, ear coarse and ET (P<0.05). The average dry matter accumulation, yield, ET, and net income of N2 treatment were higher than that of N1 and N3 treatment 5.58 and 15.80%, 4.25% and 16.76%, 4.96% and 3.41%, 8.76% and 29.42%, respectively. R25 treatment significantly enhanced dry matter accumulation, yield and components, ET, WUE, NPFP, net income and input/output. WUE continued to increase with increasing N application while NPFP continued to decrease. Treatment N2R25 had the highest dry matter accumulation and ET, and treatment N2R37.5 had the highest yield, net income and input/output. Spring maize yield was significantly and positively correlated with dry matter accumulation, ET, WUE, net income and input/output. Taking into account the dry matter accumulation, yield, WUE and net income of spring maize, the nitrogen fertilizer management was optimized, and the nitrogen application rate and replacement ratio range were 160~230 kg/hm2 and 8~38%, respectively, spring maize dry matter accumulation, yield, WUE and net income can all reach more than 95% of the optimal value while the NPFP under the this combined treatment was 66.68 ~ 93.98 kg/kg.

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  • 收稿日期:2023-11-09
  • 最后修改日期:2023-12-14
  • 录用日期:2023-12-27
  • 在线发布日期: 2024-04-29
  • 出版日期: