为研究生物炭不同应用模式对盐碱土水盐调控及小麦苗期生长的影响。通过室内桶栽模拟试验,生物炭以2种物理状态(粉状和杆状)、3个添加量(1%,3%和5%质量百分比)分别作为覆盖和添加物,以不添加生物炭的处理作为对照。结果表明:"干播湿出"条件下,FF(粉状覆盖)、GF(杆状覆盖)处理小麦出苗率分别为对照(CK)的7.33~9.00,3.00~3.33倍;FH(粉状混合)、GH(杆状混合)处理的出苗率较CK分别提高66.67%~166.67%,33.00%~367.00%。FF、GF处理的株高大幅提高,较CK分别提高21.52%~34.55%,24.54%~40.48%;FH、GH处理的株高小幅提高,较CK分别提高-1.35%~12.22%,3.76%~8.59%。不同应用模式的灌后含水率差异明显,FF处理的表层土壤较CK提高0.31%~15.58%;而GF处理的表层土壤含水率较CK下降0.40%~7.65%;FH、GH处理的土壤含水率较CK分别提高7.33%~18.61%,1.33%~18.38%;蒸发后FF、GF处理的含水率较CK分别提高4.34%~45.38%,27.08%~53.22%,蒸发后0-15 cm土层的含水率明显提高,FH、GH处理土壤含水率较CK分别提高3.26%~16.66%,5.77%~36.37%。CK 0-10 cm土层的电导率相对变化率最大,为124.76%,FF、GF处理的电导率相对变化率分别为59.61%~114.73%,18.21%~86.47%;GH、FH处理的电导率相对变化率分别为67.26%~96.30%,72.05%~122.32%。FF、GF处理的蒸发量较CK分别减少0.76%~27.21%,53.49%~77.02%;FH、GH处理的蒸发量与CK相比分别减少1.95%~4.79%,1.71%~14.82%。生物炭改良作用的大小取决于生物炭的添加量和应用方式,等炭量投入条件下FF、GF处理在水盐分布、抑制蒸发和作物生长的作用优于FH、GH处理,可作为干旱区添加生物炭改良盐碱地的适宜模式。
In order to study the effects of different application modes of biochar on water and salt regulation in saline alkali soil and wheat seedling growth, an indoor bucket planting simulation experiment was conducted. Biochar was covered on the surface of the soil in two forms of powdery and rod-shaped, with a mass percentage of 1%, 3% and 5%. Under the same treatment, biochar was mixed with 10 cm of the soil surface, and the treatment without biochar was used as a control (CK). The results showed that under the condition of "dry sowing and wet emergence", the emergence rate of wheat treated with FF (powdery cover) and GF (rod-shaped cover) was 7.33 to 9.00 and 3.00 to 3.33 times higher than that of CK, respectively. The emergence rate of FH and GH treatments increased by 66.67% to 166.67% and 33.00% to 367.00%, respectively, compared with CK. The plant height of FF and GF treatments significantly increased, with an increase of 21.52% to 34.55% and 24.54% to 40.48%, respectively, compared with CK. The plant height of FH and GH treatments increased slightly, with an increase of -1.35% to 12.22% and 3.76% to 8.59%, respectively, compared with CK. There were significant differences in post irrigation moisture content among different application modes, and FF treatment increased the surface soil moisture content by 0.31% to 15.58% compared with CK. The surface soil moisture content treated with GF decreased by 0.40% to 7.65% compared with CK. The soil moisture content of FH and GH treatments increased by 7.33% to 18.61% and 1.33% to 18.38%, respectively, compared with CK. After evaporation, the moisture content of FF and GF treatments increased by 4.34% to 45.38% and 27.08% to 53.22%, respectively, compared with CK. After evaporation, the moisture content of the 0-15 cm soil layer increased significantly. The soil moisture content of FH and GH treatments increased by 3.26% to 16.66% and 5.77% to 36.37%, respectively, compared with CK. The maximum relative change rate of conductivity in the 0-10 cm soil layer of CK was 124.76%, while that in FF and GF treatments was 59.61% to 114.73% and 18.21% to 86.47%, respectively. The relative change rate in conductivity of GH and FH treatments was 67.26% to 96.30% and 72.05% to 122.32%, respectively. Compared with CK, the evaporation of FF and GF treatments decreased by 0.76% to 27.21% and 53.49% to 77.02%, respectively. Compared with CK, the evaporation of FH and GH treatments decreased by 1.95% to 4.79% and 1.71% to 14.82%, respectively. The improvement effect of biochar depended on the amount and the application method of biochar. Under equal carbon input conditions, FF and GF treatments had better effects on water and salt distribution, inhibition of evaporation, and crop growth than FH and GH treatments, which could be used as suitable models for adding biochar to improve saline alkali land in arid areas.
徐强, 刘洪光, 李明思, 李鹏飞, 龚萍.生物炭不同施用方式对水盐调控及小麦苗期生长的影响[J].水土保持学报,2023,37(5):363~369复制