基于2016年的田间定位试验,在冬闲(F)和冬种绿肥(G)2种模式下,探究不同施氮量(N0:不施氮;N50:减氮50%;N100:常规氮;N150:增施氮50%)对双季稻产量、养分吸收特征及氮素利用率的影响,以期为南方稻区绿肥利用和氮肥施用提供科学理论依据。结果表明,与冬闲模式相比,冬种绿肥模式提高4种不同氮水平下的早晚稻产量,其中早、晚稻稻谷产量平均增产8.0%,5.7%。2种模式下的早稻产量随施氮量增加均呈现出先增加后降低的趋势,而晚稻则呈现上升的趋势。冬种绿肥模式同样提高植株地上部氮(N)、磷(P)和钾(K)素积累量和氮肥偏生产力。随施氮量的增加,这2种模式的早晚稻养分收获指数和氮肥利用率大多呈下降趋势,高量氮肥处理(N150)降低早稻地上部K素的积累量。早晚稻稻谷产量与水稻N、P和K素积累量存在显著正相关,2种模式下的高氮处理(N150)K素吸收的降低与其早稻产量下降相关联。结合稻谷产量与施氮量拟合分析、养分吸收利用等多方面效应,综合考量,冬闲模式下,早稻季氮肥适宜施用范围为150.0~170.3 kg/hm2,冬种绿肥模式下,早稻季氮肥适宜施用范围为75.0~122.8 kg/hm2。因此,在我国南方双季稻区,冬种植绿肥还田,可提高水稻对N、P和K素的吸收量,早稻季可以实现氮肥减施,且不降低双季稻产量,对于实现水稻高效生产具有实际意义。
In order to provide scientific theoretical basis for green manure utilization and nitrogen fertilizer application in southern rice, based on the field localization experiment in 2016, the influence of different nitrogen application rates (N0:no nitrogen application; N50:50% reduction in nitrogen; N100:conventional nitrogen; N150:50% increase in nitrogen application) on yield, nutrient uptake characteristics and nitrogen efficiency of double-cropping rice were explored in the two modes of fallow (F) and green manure (G). The results showed that compared with the fallow mode, the green manure mode of winter planting increased the yield of early and late rice under these four different nitrogen levels, and the yield of early and late rice increased by 8.0% and 5.7% on average. In both modes, the yield of early rice increased firstly and then decreased with the increase of nitrogen application, while the increase of late rice showed an upward trend. The green manure model of winter planting also increased the accumulation of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in the aboveground part of the plant and the partial productivity of nitrogen fertilizer. With the increase of nitrogen application, the nutrient harvest index and nitrogen fertilizer utilization rate of early and late rice in these two modes mostly showed a downward trend, and the high-level nitrogen fertilizer treatment (N150) reduced the accumulation of aboveground K elements in the early rice season. There was a significant positive correlation between early and late rice yields and N, P and K accumulation, and the decrease of high nitrogen treatment (N150) K uptake in the two modes was associated with the decline of early rice yield. Comprehensive consideration combined with the fitting analysis of rice yield and nitrogen application rate, nutrient absorption, and utilization, etc., the suitable application range of nitrogen fertilizer in early rice season was 150.0 to170.3 kg/hm2 under the fallow mode, and 75.0 to 122.8 kg/hm2 in early rice season under winter green manure mode. Therefore, in the double-cropping rice area of southern China, planting green manure in winter can increase the absorption of N, P, and K elements in rice, and can reduce nitrogen fertilizer without reducing the yield of double-cropping rice in the early rice season, which is of practical significance for achieving efficient rice production.
庾振宇, 方畅宇, 刘芳禧, 张江林, 高雅洁, 鲁艳红, 廖育林, 屠乃美, 聂军.绿肥配施氮肥对双季稻产量和养分吸收的影响[J].水土保持学报,2023,37(5):320~327复制