喷播基质是矿山边坡植被修复的重要材料,但受降雨冲刷后易产生水肥流失问题。以增强喷播基质水肥保持能力为目的,制备以菌糠、醋酸乙烯酯和丙烯酸为原料的保水材料,通过模拟降雨冲刷方法研究其对喷播基质改良的保水保肥和植物修复影响。结果表明:m(菌糠)/m(丙烯酸)为1/3、中和度为80%、交联剂用量为0.09 g、引发剂用量为0.36 g、醋酸乙烯酯用量为6 mL时保水材料在蒸馏水中吸水倍率为123.94 g/g,在0.9%的氯化钠溶液中吸水倍率为84.36 g/g。该保水材料可显著提升喷播基质的抗冲刷性和植物修复效果,且纤维可增强保水材料的效果。在冲刷-蒸发循环中降低18.57%的径流量,延长初始产流时间;使硝态氮、铵态氮、总磷的流失量分别降低15.89%,56.52%,58.21%;黑麦草出芽率、存活率、干重分别增加76.19%,48.45%,33.33%;黑麦草全氮、全磷、全钾含量分别提高77.48%,33.33%,60.66%;根际喷播基质较对照的含水量提高30.50%。研究结果为解决喷播基质修复矿山边坡时的水肥流失问题提供理论依据。
The spray seeding substrate is an important material for the rehabilitation of mine slopes but is prone to cause problems of water and fertilizer loss when washed away by rainfall. To improve the water and fertility retention capacity of the spray seeding substrate, water-retaining materials based on mycorrhizal bran, vinyl acetate, and acrylic acid were prepared and their effects on water and fertility retention and phytoremediation of the modified spray seeding substrate were investigated by simulated rainfall washout. The results showed that the water-retaining material absorbed 123.94 g/g of water in distilled water and 84.36 g/g of water in 0.9% sodium chloride solution at an m (bacterium bran)/m (acrylic acid) ratio of 1/3, a neutralization level of 80%, a crosslinker dosage of 0.09 g, an initiator dosage of 0.36 g and a vinyl acetate dosage of 6 mL. The water-retaining material significantly improved the scour resistance and phytoremediation of the spray seeding substrate and the fibers enhanced the effectiveness of the water-retaining material. The water-retaining material reduced runoff by 18.57% in the flush-evaporation cycle and extended the initial production time; reduced nitrate, ammonium, and total phosphorus losses by 15.89%, 56.52% and 58.21% respectively; increased ryegrass germination rate, survival rate and dry weight by 76.19%, 48.45% and 33.33% respectively; increased soil total N, P, and K content by 77.48%, 33.33% and 60.66% respectively; the water content of the inter-root spray seeding substrate increased by 30.50% compared to the control. The results of the study provide a theoretical basis for solving the problem of water and fertilizer loss during the rehabilitation of mine slopes with a spray seeding substrate.
金香一, 王一冰, 张峰, 刘波, 李明堂.适宜喷播基质的保水材料制备及其应用效果[J].水土保持学报,2023,37(5):267~274复制