为探究安徽省青弋江流域土壤侵蚀的演变规律和驱动因素,采用InVEST模型对该流域2000-2018年的土壤侵蚀特征开展了研究,量化了不同土地利用类型、海拔、坡度下土壤侵蚀状况,并借助地理探测器对流域土壤侵蚀影响因素进行分析。结果表明:(1)2000年、2010年、2018年该流域平均土壤侵蚀模数分别为15.29,14.14,10.74 t/(hm2·a),侵蚀总量分别为1.08×107,1.00×107,0.76×107 t,呈现逐渐减小特征;(2)流域内土壤侵蚀空间差异显著,呈现"北低南高"的分布格局;(3)不同土地利用类型土壤侵蚀模数大小表现为裸地>草地>林地>耕地>建设用地>水体,全流域林地侵蚀量最大,占总侵蚀量的73.71%;(4)地形因子对流域内土壤侵蚀存在显著影响,坡度是青弋江流域土壤侵蚀主导因子,因子间交互作用对土壤侵蚀的解释力均大于单因子,其中坡度与年降水量和土地利用的协同作用解释力最强,分别达22.93%和22.29%;(5)坡地坡度降缓及增加草地和林地覆盖可以有效降低土壤侵蚀。研究结果为厘清青弋江流域土壤侵蚀分布格局和驱动因素,以及为青弋江流域推进水土保持治理工作和提高生态效益提供决策依据。
To investigate the evolution pattern and drivers of soil erosion in the Qingyi River watershed of Anhui Province, the InVEST model was used to investigate the soil erosion characteristics of the watershed from 2000 to 2018, quantify the soil erosion conditions under different land use types, elevations, and slopes, and analyze the factors influencing soil erosion in the watershed with the help of a geographic probe. The results showed that:(1) The average soil erosion modulus in the watershed was 15.29, 14.14, and 10.74 t/(hm2·a) in 2000, 2010, and 2018, respectively, and the total erosion was 1.08×107, 1.00×107, and 0.76×107 t, respectively, showing a gradually decreasing characteristic. (2) Soil erosion in the watershed varied significantly in space, showing a distribution pattern of low in the north and high in the south. (3) The size of soil erosion modulus of different land use types showed that bare land>grassland>forestland>cultivated land>construction land>water bodies, and the erosion of forest land in the watershed was the largest, accounting for 73.71% of the total erosion. (4) Topographic factors had significant effects on soil erosion in the watershed, and slope was the dominant factor of soil erosion in the Qingyi River watershed. The explanatory power of the interaction between factors on soil erosion was greater than that of single factors, among which the synergistic effect of slope with annual precipitation and land use was the strongest, reaching 22.93% and 22.29%. (5) Soil erosion could be effectively reduced by slowing the slope and increasing grassland and woodland cover in slope areas. The results of the study provide a basis for clarifying the distribution pattern and driving factors of soil erosion in the Qingyi River basin, and can provide a basis for decision making to promote soil and water conservation management and improve ecological benefits in the Qingyi River basin.
黄振华, 余健, 房莉, 方凤满, 苗雨青, 支俊俊, 徐光来, 水恒涛, 曹雨.基于InVEST模型的青弋江流域土壤侵蚀与影响因素研究[J].水土保持学报,2023,37(5):189~197复制