植物基固沙剂是以植物材料提取物为主成分的环保型固沙剂,为研究其应用于沙质耕地是否具有可行性,以3种植物基固沙剂(刺槐型、亚麻型和向日葵型)和沙土为研究对象,喷施等量清水处理为CK,开展不同用量植物基固沙剂对沙土形成的固结层抗压、抗风蚀及其植物种子萌发、幼苗生长的比较试验研究。结果表明:(1)刺槐型、亚麻型、向日葵型固沙剂喷施于风沙土地表,均可形成1~14 mm厚度固结层,其平均抗压强度较CK分别提高206.21%,147.51%,72.74%。(2)3种植物基固沙剂均具有显著的固沙效果,随用量增加土壤抗风蚀能力均显著增强,在5 g/m2用量下风蚀量最低,较CK分别减少65.92%,58.33%和69.55%。(3)刺槐型、亚麻型固沙剂对小麦种子萌发及芽生长有促进作用,向日葵型固沙剂有抑制作用,且随用量增加抑制效果明显,在3 g/m2用量时种子发芽受到显著抑制,发芽率较CK降低62.50%;在4 g/m2用量时,根系萌蘖受到显著抑制;在2 g/m2用量时,芽生长受到显著抑制。(4)固结层对幼苗破土有一定影响,刺槐型固沙剂固结层影响最大,当达到5 g/m2用量时,小麦、苜蓿的出苗率较CK分别显著降低10.54%,3.90%,但幼苗顶破固结层后,3种固沙剂均对小麦、苜蓿植株生长有一定促进作用。综合考虑抗压强度、植物种子萌发及幼苗生长因素,在C3、C4、Y3、Y4用量下有较好的抗风蚀效果,且对植物无抑制作用。研究结果为植物资源类固沙剂研发和应用提供理论依据,为耕地土壤风蚀治理技术提供参考。
Plant based sand fixing agents are environmentally friendly sand fixing agents mainly composed of plant material extracts. The feasibility of their application in sandy farmland was studied. Three plant-based sand fixing agents (Robinia pseudoacacia type, flax type, and sunflower type) and sandy soil were used as the research objects, and the same amount of water was sprayed as CK. Comparative experimental studies were conducted on the effects of different dosages on the formation of a consolidated layer of sand, compression resistance, wind erosion resistance, plant seed germination, and seedling growth. The results showed that:(1) When sprayed with black locust type, flax type, and sunflower type sand fixing agents on the surface of sandy soil, a consolidation layer with a thickness of 1 to 14 mm can be formed, and its average compressive strength is 206.21%, 147.51%, and 72.74% higher than CK. (2) All three plant-based sand fixation agents had significant sand fixation effects. As the dosage increases, the soil's resistance to wind erosion was significantly enhanced. At a dosage of 5 g/m2, the wind erosion amount was the lowest, with a decrease of 65.92%, 58.33%, and 69.55% compared to CK, respectively; (3) Black locust type and flax type sand fixing agents had a promoting effect on wheat seed germination and bud growth, while sunflower type sand fixing agents had an inhibitory effect, and the inhibitory effect was obvious with increasing dosage. When the dosage reached 3 g/m2, seed germination was significantly inhibited, and the germination rate was reduced by 62.50% compared to CK; When the dosage reached 4 g/m2, root sprouting was significantly inhibited; When the dosage reached 2 g/m2, the growth of buds was significantly inhibited. (4) The consolidation layer had a certain impact on the soil breaking of seedlings, with the black locust type sand fixing agent had the greatest impact. When the dosage reached 5 g/m2, the emergence rate of wheat and alfalfa significantly decreased by 10.54% and 3.90% compared to CK. However, after the seedlings break through the consolidation layer, all three sand fixing agents had a certain promoting effect on the growth of wheat and alfalfa plants. Taking into account factors such as compressive strength, plant seed germination, and seedling growth, it has a good wind erosion resistance effect and no inhibitory effect on plants at the dosage of C3, C4, Y3, and Y4. This study provides a theoretical basis for the research and application of plant resource-based sand fixing agents, and provides a reference for the technology of wind erosion control of farmland soil.
任廷婕, 袁立敏, 高永, 王春颖, 贾瑞庭, 徐铮铮.3种植物基固沙剂固土性能及其对植物生长影响的试验研究[J].水土保持学报,2023,37(5):145~151复制