文章摘要
冯玥, 衡通, 何新林, 杨广, 许璇, 余天源, 李玉环, 徐阳.利用15N揭示滴灌区盐旱胁迫对土壤氮素分布与棉花生长的影响[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(6):327~335
利用15N揭示滴灌区盐旱胁迫对土壤氮素分布与棉花生长的影响
Using 15N to Reveal the Effects of Salt and Drought Stress on Soil Nitrogen Distribution and Cotton Growth in Drip Irrigation Areas
投稿时间:2021-05-08  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.06.044
中文关键词: 15N  盐碱地  干旱  氮素  西北地区
英文关键词: 15N  saline-alkali land  drought  nitrogen  Northwest China
基金项目:联合基金项目(U1803244);国家自然科学基金项目(51969027);兵团科技攻关计划项目(2018AB027);兵团重大科技项目(2017AA002)
作者单位E-mail
冯玥, 衡通, 何新林, 杨广, 许璇, 余天源, 李玉环, 徐阳 石河子大学水利建筑工程学院新疆生产建设集团现代节水灌溉重点实验室, 新疆 石河子 832003 hexinlin2002@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为了探究盐旱胁迫对土壤中氮素分布和棉花生长的影响,通过测坑试验研究滴灌区不同盐分、干旱条件下土壤全氮、硝氮、氨氮的分布和棉花生长情况。试验设置3种盐分梯度的土壤(电导率,EC):3,6,9 dS/m,分别用T1、T2、T3表示;3个灌水量:2 700,3 600,4 500 m3/hm2,分别用W1、W2、W3表示(4 500 m3/hm2为当地推荐灌水量)。结果表明:当土壤盐分梯度> 3 dS/m时土壤全氮累积量显著高于低盐土壤(P<0.05),且土壤盐分对棉花花期生长影响较大。土壤的氨氮挥发量和土壤盐分梯度成正比。土壤硝态氮的淋失与灌水量呈正比,与正常灌水量的硝态氮淋失相比,水分胁迫对棉花产量的影响更为严重(P<0.01)。随土层深度的增加,土壤碱解氮以每20 cm土层8%的速度减少。各处理土壤15N残留率为11%~40%,随土壤盐度增加而增加,随灌水量增加而减少,与土壤全氮含量呈正比,与棉花产量呈反比。综上所述,T1W3处理更有利于棉花对氮肥的利用和产量的提高,推荐滴灌区棉花土壤盐度<3 dS/m,灌水量4 500 m3/hm2,可在花期适当提高施肥量以稳定产量。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the effects of salt and drought stress on the distribution of nitrogen in the soil and cotton growth, the distribution of total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen in the soil and the growth of cotton under drought conditions under different salinity conditions in drip irrigation areas were studied through test pit tests. The experiment set up three water salinity levels with conductivity (EC) of 3 (T1), 6 (T2), 9 (T3) dS/m respectively, and three irrigation volumes of 2 700 (W1), 3 600 (W2), 4 500 (W3) m3/hm2 respectively (4 500 m3/hm2 was the local recommended irrigation amount). The results showed that when the soil salinity was greater than 3 dS/m, the total soil nitrogen accumulation was significantly higher than the lower salinity (P<0.05), and soil salinity had a greater impact on the growth of cotton during flowering. In addition, the volatilization of ammonia nitrogen in the soil was directly proportional to the soil salinity gradient. The leaching loss of soil nitrate nitrogen was proportional to the amount of irrigation water. Compared with the nitrate nitrogen leaching loss of normal irrigation amount, the impact of water stress on cotton yield was more serious (P<0.01). As the depth of the soil layer increased, the soil alkaline nitrogen decreased at a rate of 8% per 20 cm soil layer. The 15N residue rate in the soil of each treatment was 11%~40%, which increased with the increase of soil salinity, and decreased with the increase of irrigation amount, which was proportional to the total nitrogen content of the soil and was inversely proportional to the cotton yield. To sum up, T1W3 was more conducive to the utilization of nitrogen fertilizer in cotton and the improvement of yield. It is recommended that the soil salinity of cotton in the drip irrigation area should be less than 3 dS/m, and the irrigation volume be 4 500 m3/hm2. The amount of fertilization could be appropriately increased during the flowering period to stabilize the yield.
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