文章摘要
邰继承, 李锐, 杨恒山, 张玉芹, 张瑞富.浅埋滴灌条件下优化施氮对西辽河平原春玉米田碳、氮足迹的影响[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(6):278~284,292
浅埋滴灌条件下优化施氮对西辽河平原春玉米田碳、氮足迹的影响
Effects of Optimal Nitrogen Application on Carbon and Nitrogen Footprints of Spring Maize Fields Under Shallow Buried Drip Irrigation in the Xiliaohe Plain
投稿时间:2021-05-30  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.06.038
中文关键词: 浅埋滴灌  优化施氮  春玉米  碳足迹  氮足迹
英文关键词: shallow buried drip irrigation  optimize nitrogen application  spring maize  carbon footprint  nitrogen footprint
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0300805);国家自然科学基金项目(31860353);内蒙古自然科学基金项目(2018LH03007,2018LH03012)
作者单位E-mail
邰继承, 李锐, 杨恒山, 张玉芹, 张瑞富 内蒙古民族大学农学院, 内蒙古自治区饲用作物工程技术研究中心, 内蒙古 通辽 028042 yanghengshan2003@aliyun.com 
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中文摘要:
      为探究西辽河平原浅埋滴灌条件下优化施氮对春玉米农田生态系统碳氮足迹的影响,于2019—2020年在内蒙古通辽市科尔沁区农业高新科技示范园区连续2年进行定位试验,以传统漫灌常规常量追氮为对照(CK),设置浅埋滴灌下常量追氮(T1)和优化追氮(T2:70%常量追氮)2个处理,研究不同灌溉方式和氮肥管理对春玉米产量、农田经济效益和农田碳氮足迹的影响。结果表明,相比于传统漫灌,浅埋滴灌下T1和T2处理在增加玉米产量的同时提高农田经济效益(P<0.05)。土壤呼吸CO2碳排放是农田碳足迹主要来源,占比43%~44%,化肥是农业生产资料碳排放主要来源,占生产资料碳排放总量36%~43%;氮肥施用是输入氮足迹的主要组成部分,占比93%~95%。农田生态系统净碳值浅埋滴灌下T1和T2处理无显著差异,分别较传统漫灌CK处理增加15.43%,9.29%;碳效率浅埋滴灌下优化追氮T2处理最高,较CK处理提高10.63%。氮素平衡浅埋滴灌下优化追氮T2处理最接近零点,显著低于T1和CK处理(P<0.05);氮投入有效利用水平T2处理最高,显著高于CK处理(P<0.05)。综合来看,浅埋滴灌下优化追氮T2处理降低西辽河平原农田生态系统碳、氮排放,提高碳效率和氮投入有效利用水平,保证玉米产量和经济效益,是西辽河平原春玉米兼顾高产、高效和生态的水氮管理模式。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the impact of optimized nitrogen application on the carbon and nitrogen footprint of spring maize farmland ecosystem under shallow buried drip irrigation in the Xiliaohe Plain, a 2-year continuous positioning experiment was used from 2019—2020 in the Agricultural High-tech Demonstration Park in Horqin District, Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia. The conventional constant nitrogen topdressing with flood irrigation was used as the control (CK). Two treatments were set up under shallow buried drip irrigation, constant nitrogen topdressing (T1) and optimized nitrogen topdressing (T2: 70% of constant nitrogen topdressing), to study the effects of different irrigation and nitrogen fertilizaiton methods on spring maize yield, economic benefits, carbon and nitrogen footprint. The results showed that compared with CK, the T1 and T2 increased the maize yield, while improved the economic benefits of farmland (P<0.05). Soil respiration CO2 emissions were the main source of farmland carbon footprint, accounting for 43%~44%. Chemical fertilizers were the main source of carbon emissions from agricultural production materials, accounting for 36%~43% of the total carbon emissions from production materials; nitrogen fertilizer application is the input of nitrogen footprint, accounting for 93%~95%. The net carbon values of farmland ecosystem under shallow buried drip irrigation had no significant difference between T1 and T2 treatments, but compared with CK, both were increased by 23.79% and 32.67%, respectively. The carbon efficiency of T2 treatment was the highest, which was significantly higher than T1 and CK treatments (P<0.05). The nitrogen balance in T2 was the closest to zero, which was significantly lower than T1 and CK (P<0.05). The effective nitrogen input level was the highest in T2, which was significantly higher than T1 and CK (P<0.01). On the whole, the optimized nitrogen topdressing T2 treatment under shallow buried drip irrigation reduced the carbon and nitrogen emissions of the farmland ecosystem in the Xiliao River Plain, improved the carbon efficiency and the effective utilization of nitrogen input, and ensured the maize yield and economic benefits. It is the optimal water and nitrogen management strategy for spring maize in the Xiliao River Plain, taking into account the high yield, high efficiency and ecology.
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