文章摘要
张金萍, 陈照明, 王强, 马军伟, 俞巧钢, 叶静, 马进川, 孙万春, 潘建清.缓释氮比例对一次性施肥单季晚稻生长和氮素利用的影响[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(6):207~212,221
缓释氮比例对一次性施肥单季晚稻生长和氮素利用的影响
Effect of Slow-release Nitrogen Ratio on Growth and Nitrogen Utilization of Single-cropping Late Rice with One-time Fertilization
投稿时间:2021-05-07  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.06.028
中文关键词: 水稻  缓释肥  产量  氮素吸收量  氮素利用率
英文关键词: rice  slow-release fertilizer  yield  nitrogen uptake  nitrogen use efficiency
基金项目:浙江省科技厅重大项目(2019C02017);浙江省三农六方项目(2019SNLF027,2020SNLF001)
作者单位E-mail
张金萍1,2, 陈照明2, 王强2, 马军伟2, 俞巧钢2, 叶静2, 马进川2, 孙万春2, 潘建清3 1. 浙江农林大学环境与资源学院, 杭州 311300

2. 浙江省农业科学院环境资源与土壤肥料研究所
, 杭州 310021

3. 浙江省长兴县农业农村局
, 浙江 湖州 313100 
majuwei11@163.com;qwang0571@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      探明单季晚稻缓释氮肥一次性施用模式中缓释氮占总施氮量的适宜比例,为单季晚稻高效施肥提供理论指导。2019—2020年在浙江省长兴县和平镇开展田间试验。试验共设6个处理:(1)不施氮肥(N0);(2)常规施肥(U1,基肥:分蘖肥:穗肥为4:3:3);(3)常规施肥减氮12.5%(U2,比例同U1);(4)57%缓释氮一次性施用(SRU1);(5)45%缓释氮一次性施用(SRU2);(6)34%缓释氮一次性施用(SRU3)。U1的施氮量为240 kg/hm2,U2和SRU的施氮量均为210 kg/hm2。测定水稻产量、养分吸收量、养分利用率、田面水铵态氮含量和氨挥发量等指标。结果表明:N0处理的单季晚稻产量为U处理的73.55%。与U相比,缓释氮肥一次性施用可以维持水稻产量。单季晚稻产量随着缓释氮施用比例升高而增加。SRU处理与U处理之间地上部氮含量及氮素吸收量均无显著差异。2019年SRU2处理和2020年SRU1处理氮肥利用率分别比U处理提高10.49%和8.84%,达到显著差异水平,其他处理与U1、U2处理间差异均不显著。与U相比,SRU处理显著降低了田面水铵态氮含量和稻田累积氨挥发量,但各缓释肥处理间无显著差异。综合相关产量及氮素损失的结果,34%缓释氮施用比例可满足单季晚稻一次性施肥要求,能保证水稻稳产,同时降低氮素径流和挥发损失。
英文摘要:
      To test the appropriate proportion of slow-release nitrogen (N) to the total N application in the one-time application strategy for single-cropping rice, to provide theoretical guidance for efficient fertilization of single-cropping late rice, a field experiment was carried out in Heping Town, Changxing County, Zhejiang Province from 2019 to 2020. The experiment consisted of six treatments: (1) No N fertilizer (N0); (2) Conventional fertilization (U1, base fertilizer∶tillering fertilizer∶panicle fertilizer=4∶3∶3); (3) Reduction conventional N rate by 12.5% (U2, the proportion was the same as U1); (4) 57% slow-release N with one-time application (SRU1); (5) 45% slow-release N with one-time application (SRU2); (6) 34% slow-release N with one-time application (SRU3). The N application rate was 240 kg/hm2 for U1, and 210 kg/hm2 for U2 and SRU. The rice yield, nutrient uptake, nutrient utilization efficiency, ammonium N content in-field water, and ammonia volatilization were measured. The results showed that the yield of single cropping rice in N0 was 73.55% of that in U. Compared with U, one-time application of slow-release N fertilizer could maintain rice yield. The yield of single cropping rice tended to increase with the increase of the proportion of slow-release N application. There was no significant difference in aboveground N content and N uptake between SRU and U. Compared with U, the N use efficiency of SRU2 in 2019 and SRU1 in 2020 increased by 10.49% and 8.84% respectively, reaching the significant difference level, but there was no significant difference between other treatments and U1 and U2. Compared with U, SRU significantly reduced the content of ammonium N and cumulative ammonia volatilization in-field water, but there was no significant difference among slow-release fertilizers. According to the results of related yield and N loss, one-time application of 34% slow-release N application ratio could meet the nutrients requirements of single cropping rice, ensure stable rice yield and reduce N runoff and volatilization loss at the same time.
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