文章摘要
徐志鹏, 穆奎, 董文俊, 严惠敏, 张体彬, 邹宇锋, 丁奠元, 冯浩.关中地区播前土壤墒情对覆膜旱作夏玉米产量和水分利用的影响[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(6):123~134,143
关中地区播前土壤墒情对覆膜旱作夏玉米产量和水分利用的影响
Effects of Soil Moisture Content Before Sowing on Summer Maize Yield and Water Use Under Plastic Mulching in Guanzhong Region
投稿时间:2021-05-08  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.06.018
中文关键词: 土壤底墒  田间持水量  AquaCrop模型  耗水量  水分利用效率
英文关键词: soil moisture before sowing  field capacity  AquaCrop model  water consumption  water use efficiency
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51709233,51879223);中国博士后科学基金项目(2018M632391);西北农林科技大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项(2452021036)
作者单位E-mail
徐志鹏1, 穆奎1, 董文俊3, 严惠敏1, 张体彬2,3, 邹宇锋3, 丁奠元1,3, 冯浩2,3 1. 扬州大学水利科学与工程学院, 江苏 扬州 225009

2. 中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所
, 陕西 杨凌 712100

3. 西北农林科技大学中国旱区节水农业研究院
, 陕西 杨凌 712100 
dyding@yzu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      基于3年连续冬小麦-夏玉米覆膜轮作试验,通过校验之后的AquaCrop模型设置不同水平的播前土壤墒情,模拟研究关中地区多年历史气候条件下旱作覆膜夏玉米生长和水分利用对播前土壤墒情的响应规律,拟基于播前土壤墒情初步建立覆膜与否的判断标准。结果表明,当土壤初始含水率≤70%田间持水量,关中地区夏玉米覆膜产量波动剧烈;覆膜增产率随着降水的增加呈增加趋势。随着土壤初始含水率的增加,覆膜增产效果越来越明显,且趋于稳定;然而覆膜措施的增产效果对降水量越来越不敏感,最终呈稳定趋势。当播前土壤底墒达到80%~85%田间持水量的水平时,覆膜夏玉米籽粒产量水分利用效率达到最高。综上,有水可保可用是覆膜增产增效的先决条件之一;当土壤初始含水率≤70%田间持水量,建议不采用覆膜措施;当土壤初始含水率≥80%田间持水量时,建议采用覆膜措施。
英文摘要:
      Plastic mulching (PM) technology can effectively improve the crop productivity in the dryland. However, few studies have been conducted to determine PM effect in different soil moisture conditions before sowing. Based on the winter wheat-summer maize rotation experiment with PM from 2013—2016, the Aquacrop model was tested, and then different levels of soil moisture before sowing were set up in Baoji, Wugong, and Xi’an using the historical climatic data. The response law of the plant growth and water use during summer maize growing seasons to soil moisture before sowing was explored under PM, and the criterion for using PM was established. Results showed that when the initial soil water content before sowing (ISWC) was less than 70% of field capacity (FC), the maize yield greatly fluctuated in the three sites. The yield increment for both non-mulching and PM treatments increased with the precipitation. With the increasing ISWC, the increment in yield became more and more obvious, which was less and less sensitive to precipitation, and finally tended to be stable under PM. When ISWC reached 80%~85% of FC, the maize water use efficiency under PM reached the highest level. To sum up, the soil water availability was one of the prerequisites for the yield promotion effect under PM. When the ISWC is less than 70% of FC, PM is not recommended; when the ISWC is greater than 80% of FC, PM is recommended to farmers.
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