文章摘要
薛东明, 郭小平, 张晓霞.干旱矿区排土场不同边坡生态修复模式下减流减沙效益[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(6):15~21,30
干旱矿区排土场不同边坡生态修复模式下减流减沙效益
Runoff and Sediment Reduction Under Different Slope Ecological Restoration Modes of Waste Dump in Arid Mining Area
投稿时间:2021-06-23  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.06.003
中文关键词: 露天煤矿  排土场边坡  减流减沙效益  生态修复模式
英文关键词: opencast coal mine  waste dump slope  runoff and sediment reduction benefit  ecological restoration mode
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目"矿区生态修复与生态安全保障技术集成示范研究"(2017YFC0504406);内蒙古自治区科技重大项"内蒙古典型矿区差异化修复治理模式与解决方案研究"(2020ZD0021)
作者单位E-mail
薛东明, 郭小平, 张晓霞 北京林业大学水土保持学院, 北京 100083 guoxp@bjfu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为探究不同生态修复模式对露天矿区排土场边坡产流产沙规律的影响,采用野外径流小区试验方法,对矿区排土场边坡不同生态修复模式的产流产沙进行了1个雨季的连续观测。结果表明:(1)研究区降雨年内分配不均,主要集中在汛期7—9月,该时期降雨量占到年均降雨量的77.03%,是年内径流泥沙损失最多的时期。(2)不同生态修复模式与对照(只撒播灌草种子)相比均具有减流减沙效果,但是不同生态修复模式的减流减沙效益有显著差异,减流效果从大到小依次为沙柳网格模式(64.35%)>生态棒模式(56.56%)>生态袋模式(52.74%)>铁丝石笼模式(48.70%)>植物篱模式(45.51%)>土壤改良模式(35.89%)>无纺布覆盖模式(33.97%)>砾石压盖模式(8.19%);减沙效果依次为沙柳网格模式(69.41%)>生态棒模式(61.28%)>生态袋模式(55.09%)>铁丝石笼模式(52.43%)>植物篱模式(48.72%)>土壤改良模式(42.09%)>无纺布覆盖模式(38.31%)>砾石压盖模式(19.34%)。(3)不同生态修复模式产沙量对产流量响应特征均呈极显著正相关(P<0.05,r>0),沙柳网格模式产沙量对产流量响应程度较小,生态棒模式次之,对照产沙量对产流量响应程度最大。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the impact of different ecological restoration modes on the runoff and sediment production law of the dump in the opencast coal mine, according to the field runoff plot methods, the field standard runoff plot method was used to observe the runoff and sediment production of the dump in the mining area with different ecological restoration modes for a continuous rainy season. The results showed that: (1) The rainfall distribution in the study area is uneven during the year, mainly concentrated in the flood season from July to September, the rainfall in this period accounted for 77.03% of the average annual rainfall, which was the period with the largest loss of runoff and sediment in the year; (2) Compared with the bare slope (sowing only shrub and grass seeds), different ecological restoration modes had the effect of runoff and sediment reduction, but the benefits of different ecological restoration modes for runoff and sediment reduction were significantly different. Runoff reduction effect from large to small listed in the order of Salix psammophila checkerboard mode (64.35%) > Ecological rods mode (56.56%) > Ecological geo-textile bag mode (52.74%) > Wire gabion mode (48.70%) > Hedgerows mode (45.51%) > Soil improvement mode (35.89%) > Non-woven fabric covering mode (33.97%) > Gravel capping mode (8.19%);The sediment reduction effect were Salix psammophila checkerboard mode (69.41%) > Ecological rods mode (61.28%) > Ecological geo-textile bag mode (55.09%) > Wire gabion mode (52.43%) > Hedgerows mode (48.72%) > Soil improvement mode(42.09%) > Non-woven fabric covering mode (38.31%) > Gravel capping mode (19.34%); (3) The response characteristics of sediment yield from different ecological restoration modes were all significantly positively correlated (P<0.05, r>0), the Salix psammophila checker board mode had a smaller response to runoff, followed by the Ecological rods mode, and the Rock cover mode had the greatest response to runoff.
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