文章摘要
曲芝旭, 韩玉国, 郭虎林, 安妙颖, 赵晨阳, 许盼.不同肥料类型及用量对坡面氮素流失的影响[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(6):1~6
不同肥料类型及用量对坡面氮素流失的影响
Effects of Different Fertilizer Types and Amounts on Slope Nitrogen Loss
投稿时间:2021-05-07  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.06.001
中文关键词: 人工模拟降雨  有机肥  传统氮肥  氮素浓度  氮素流失量
英文关键词: artificial rainfall simulation  organic fertilizer  traditional nitrogen fertilizer  nitrogen concentrations  nitrogen loss amount
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2017ZX07102,2017ZX07102-001,2017ZX07108,2017ZX07108-002)
作者单位E-mail
曲芝旭1, 韩玉国1,2, 郭虎林1, 安妙颖1, 赵晨阳1, 许盼1 1. 北京林业大学水土保持学院, 水土保持国家林业局重点实验室, 北京 100083

2. 北京市水土保持工程技术研究中心
, 北京 100083 
yghan@bjfu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为研究施用不同肥料类型(尿素、鸡粪)及用量(349.6,174.8 kg/hm2)下坡面氮素流失规律,采用人工模拟降雨试验方法,探究二者氮素流失差异的原因,并阐述肥料用量对氮素流失量的影响。结果表明:施肥后坡面氮素流失以泥沙全氮流失为主,占比可达78.16%~93.46%;径流硝态氮浓度高于铵态氮浓度,且径流总氮流失以硝态氮流失为主要形式,流失量占径流总氮流失量的38.53%~48.62%。肥料类型对坡面泥沙全氮浓度影响不明显,施用鸡粪处理泥沙硝态氮浓度和铵态氮浓度较高。等氮施用鸡粪可以减少坡面径流总氮、硝态氮和铵态氮流失浓度,分别减少68.64%~74.23%,70.09%~72.54%,27.90%~39.45%。等氮鸡粪替代尿素可以减少坡面氮素流失总量的11.07%~15.81%,减少径流总氮形式流失量70.55%~73.36%。坡面施氮量增加,氮素流失浓度增加,氮素流失总量也随之增加,可增加6.00%~11.00%。全量鸡粪替代半量尿素可减少坡面氮素流失总量,其效果较半量鸡粪处理下降10.40%。农业施用氮肥时,应合理选择施用量,并少量多次施用。尽量选择有机肥替代传统氮肥,以减少地表径流氮素浓度。做好水土保持工作,以降低水土流失携带大量的氮素对环境所造成的威胁。
英文摘要:
      To study the law of nitrogen loss on slope under different fertilizer types (urea, chicken manure) and different dosages (349.6, 174.8 kg/hm2), the artificial simulated rainfall test method was used to explore the reasons for the difference in nitrogen loss between the two, and to elaborate the effects of fertilizer application rate on nitrogen loss. The results showed that the slope nitrogen loss after fertilization was mainly in the form of total nitrogen loss in sediment, accounting for 78.16%~93.46%. The concentration of runoff nitrate nitrogen was higher than that of runoff ammonium nitrogen, and the loss of total nitrogen in runoff was mainly in the form of nitrate nitrogen loss. The amount accounted for 38.53%~48.62% of the total nitrogen loss in runoff. The type of fertilizer had no obvious effect on the total nitrogen concentration of the slope sediment. The nitrate nitrogen concentration and the ammonium nitrogen concentration of the silt treated with chicken manure were higher. The equal nitrogen application of chicken manure could reduce the concentration of total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen in slope runoff, by 68.64%~74.23%, 70.09%~72.54%, 27.90%~39.45%, respectively. Equal-nitrogen chicken manure replacing urea could reduce the total nitrogen loss on slope surface by 11.07%~15.81%, and reduce the total nitrogen loss in runoff by 70.55%~73.36%. Increasing the amount of nitrogen applied on slopes would increase the concentration of nitrogen loss, and the total amount of nitrogen loss would also increase by 6.00%~11.00%. The full amount of chicken manure instead of half the amount of urea would reduce the total nitrogen loss on the slope by 10.40%. When applying nitrogen fertilizer in agriculture, the application rate should be selected reasonably with the low rate and high frequency. Try to choose organic fertilizer instead of traditional nitrogen fertilizer to reduce the nitrogen concentration in surface runoff. The water and soil conservation should be done well to reduce the threat to the environment caused by the large amount of nitrogen in soil erosion.
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