文章摘要
高超, 陈财, 罗纲.冬小麦干旱的下垫面孕灾环境研究——以淮河流域为例[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(3):359~368
冬小麦干旱的下垫面孕灾环境研究——以淮河流域为例
Study on the Hazard-formative Environment on Underlying Surface of Winter Wheat Drought-A Case Study of Huaihe River Basin, China
投稿时间:2020-11-17  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.03.049
中文关键词: 气象干旱  农业干旱  冬小麦  下垫面孕灾环境  淮河流域
英文关键词: meteorological drought  agricultural drought  winter wheat  hazard-formative environment  Huaihe River Basin
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41871024)
作者单位
高超1,2,3, 陈财4, 罗纲4 1. 宁波大学地理与空间信息技术系, 浙江 宁波 315211

2. 宁波市高等学校协同创新中心"宁波陆海国土空间利用与治理协同创新中心"
, 浙江 宁波 315211

3. 浙江省新型重点专业智库宁波大学东海研究院
, 浙江 宁波 315211

4. 中国科学院宁波城市环境观测研究站
, 浙江 宁波 315800 
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中文摘要:
      基于1961—2019年淮河流域140个气象站点的日尺度降水数据和2000—2016年的月尺度的地表温度(LST)、归一化植被指数(NDVI)数据,利用表征气象干旱的标准化降水指数(SPI)挑选确定冬小麦不同生长期的典型干旱年份;利用表征农业干旱温度植被干旱指数(TVDI),借助Landsat-8数据提取淮河流域冬小麦种植面积,进一步深入分析格网化后的高程、坡度、水系、土壤类型、土壤相对湿度和浅层地下水埋藏深度等下垫面孕灾环境条件与冬小麦干旱之间的相互关系及其影响,为冬小麦干旱防灾减灾研究提供理论依据和技术支持。结果表明:(1)1961—2019年,冬小麦不同生育期的降水变化趋势不明显,冬前生长期和灌浆成熟期降水呈现略微上升趋势,各气象站点上升下降趋势均不显著。根据SPI确定典型干旱年份,冬前生长期的典型干旱年份为2010年,越冬期为2011年,返青抽穗期为2006年,灌浆成熟期为2001年。(2)淮河流域农业干旱程度总体大于气象干旱,空间分布总体一致,但存在部分地区不一致的现象,即冬小麦干旱还受到下垫面孕灾环境的较大影响。(3)冬小麦干旱与水系、表层土壤相对湿度和浅层地下水埋深相关性较高,与高程、坡度、土壤类型相关性较小。淮河流域冬小麦干旱易发生在海拔相对较高、坡度较陡、土壤类型为半水成土、远离河流、表层土壤相对湿度较低和浅层地下水埋藏深度为>1 m的区域,干旱程度主要呈现沿海至内陆递增、南高北低的特征,有必要加强此类地区防灾抗旱能力,增加人工灌溉设施。
英文摘要:
      Based on the daily scale precipitation data of 140 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2019, monthly scale Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from 2000 to 2016, the Huaihe River Basin was taken as the research area. The meteorological drought was characterized by Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), the typical dry years were determined, according to the SPI. And the agricultural drought was characterized by Temperature Vegetation Drought Index (TVDI). Landsat 8 data was used to extract winter wheat planting area in the Huaihe River Basin, and the further in-depth analysis was made on the correlation and influence between the underlying surface hazard-formative environmental conditions, such as elevation, slope, river, soil type, soil relative humidity and shallow groundwater depth, and winter wheat drought, to provide theoretical basis and technical support for the study of winter wheat drought disaster prevention and mitigation. The results showed that:(1) From 1961 to 2019, the precipitation changing trend in different growth periods of winter wheat was not obvious, and the precipitation in pre-winter growth period and filling and mature period showed a slightly rising trend. The upward and downward trends of all meteorological stations were not significant. According to SPI, the typical dry year in the pre-winter growth period was 2010, the over-wintering period was 2011, the regreening and heading period was 2006, and the filling and mature period was 2001. (2) By comparing the proportion of meteorological drought and agricultural drought above mild drought and the spatial distribution, the degree of agricultural drought in the Huaihe River Basin was generally greater than the meteorological drought, and their spatial distributions were consistent overall, but there were some regional inconsistencies. It was necessary to further analyze the impact of underlying surface hazard-formative environment on agricultural drought. (3) Winter wheat drought was highly correlated with river, surface soil relative humidity and shallow groundwater depth, but less correlated with elevation, slope and soil type. Winter wheat agricultural drought in the Huaihe River Basin was prone to occur in areas with relatively high elevation, steep slope, semi - hydrogenous soil type, distances from rivers, low surface soil relative humidity and shallow groundwater burial depth of more than 1 m. The degree of drought increased from coastal to inland and was higher in the south and lower in the north, so it was necessary to strengthen disaster prevention and drought resistance in such areas and increase artificial irrigation facilities.
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