文章摘要
朱灵, 李易, 杨婉秋, 高永恒.沙化对高寒草地土壤碳、氮、酶活性及细菌多样性的影响[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(3):350~358
沙化对高寒草地土壤碳、氮、酶活性及细菌多样性的影响
Effect of Desertification on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen, Enzyme Activity and Bacterial Diversity in Alpine Grassland
投稿时间:2020-11-25  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.03.048
中文关键词: 草地沙化  土壤碳氮  土壤细菌  群落结构  青藏高原
英文关键词: grassland desertification  soil carbon and nitrogen  soil bacteria  bacterial community diversity  Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
基金项目:四川省重点研发计划项目(2018NZ0048);国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0501802)
作者单位E-mail
朱灵1,2, 李易3, 杨婉秋3, 高永恒1,3 1. 中国科学院、水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所, 成都 610041

2. 中国科学院大学
, 北京 100049

3. 中国科学院成都生物研究所
, 成都 610041 
yhgao@imde.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      高寒草地沙化是青藏高原生态安全的严峻威胁,研究沙化过程中土壤碳氮和微生物变化有助于揭示驱动高寒草地沙化演替的生物学机制。以川西北沙化高寒草地为研究对象,分析了未沙化、轻度沙化、中度沙化和重度沙化程度下土壤碳氮、酶活性以及细菌多样性的变化。结果表明:中度和重度沙化显著降低了土壤有机碳、溶解性有机碳、微生物量碳、全氮、可溶解性总氮、可溶解性有机氮、微生物量氮、硝态氮和铵态氮含量(P<0.05),但轻度沙化下的土壤有机碳、微生物量碳、硝态氮和铵态氮含量没有显著变化;土壤β-葡萄糖苷酶、蔗糖酶、几丁质酶、脲酶和过氧化物酶活性通常随沙化的加剧而降低,下降速率最大的阶段出现在轻度沙化向中度沙化过渡的阶段;土壤细菌多样性随着沙化的加剧先增加后降低,最高细菌多样性出现在轻度沙化阶段,但不同沙化程度下土壤细菌群落结构并无显著差异。冗余分析表明,土壤碳、氮、酶活性与细菌多样性呈正相关关系;主成分分析表明,土壤有机碳、微生物量氮、过氧化物酶和几丁质酶对土壤优势菌的影响最大。因此,在轻度沙化阶段及时采取治理措施更能有效阻止土壤性质的恶化,在沙化土壤恢复过程中还需要关注少数菌群的重建作用。
英文摘要:
      Alpine grassland desertification is a serious threat to the ecological security of the Tibetan Plateau. Studying the variations in soil carbon, nitrogen and microorganisms during desertification processes is helpful to reveal the biological mechanism driving the desertification of alpine grassland. In this study, the variations of soil carbon and nitrogen, enzyme activity, and bacterial community diversity under the conditions of non-desertification, light desertification, medium desertification and heavy desertification were analyzed. The results showed that the medium and heavy desertification decreased soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, total nitrogen, soluble total nitrogen, soluble organic nitrogen, microbial biomass nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen; while light desertification had no significant impacts on soil organic carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. The β-D-Glucosidase, Sucrase, Chitinase, Urease and Peroxidase activities decreased with the increasing desertification, and the most drastic decline occurred at the stage from light to medium desertification. Soil bacterial diversity increased under light desertification, and then decreased under medium and heavy desertification, but there was no significant difference in soil bacterial community structure under different degrees of desertification. RDA showed that there was a significant positive correlation between soil enzyme activity and bacterial diversity. PCA showed that soil organic carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, peroxidase, and chitinase had great impact on dominant bacteria species. Therefore, the protection measures taken at the light desertification stage could effectively prevent soil attributes from becoming a more severe condition in alpine grassland, in addition, the role of key bacterial communities also should be concerned during the restore process of desertificated soil.
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