文章摘要
肖让, 张永玲, 赵芸晨, 郭世乾, 崔增团, 师伟杰, 吴克倩, 俞海英.不同抗旱措施配施菌肥对河西绿洲土壤改良和制种玉米产量的影响[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(3):341~349
不同抗旱措施配施菌肥对河西绿洲土壤改良和制种玉米产量的影响
Effects of Different Drought Resistance Measures Combined with Microbial Fertilizer on Soil Amelioration and Yield of Seed Maize in Hexi Corridor
投稿时间:2020-12-28  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.03.047
中文关键词: 地膜覆盖  保水剂  菌肥  制种玉米  土壤酶活性  土壤微生物  产量
英文关键词: film mulching  super absorbent polymer  microbial fertilizer  seed maize  soil enzyme activity  soil microorganism  yield
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41867010);河西学院横向科研项目(H2018005,H2019009,H2019033,H2020024)
作者单位E-mail
肖让1, 张永玲1, 赵芸晨2, 郭世乾3, 崔增团3, 师伟杰4, 吴克倩1, 俞海英1 1. 河西学院土木工程学院, 河西走廊水资源保护利用研究所, 甘肃 张掖 734000

2. 河西学院农业与生态工程学院
, 甘肃 张掖 734000

3. 甘肃省耕地质量建设保护总站
, 兰州 730020

4. 张掖市甘州区农业技术推广中心
, 甘肃 张掖 734000 
zhangyl5266@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为探讨地膜覆盖和施用保水剂配施菌肥后河西绿洲土壤微生物数量、酶活性变化及制种玉米产量和水分利用效率的影响,在河西走廊绿洲灌区设置单地膜覆盖(AF)、单施保水剂(AW)、单施菌肥(AB)、保水剂配施菌肥(WB)、地膜覆盖配施菌肥(FB)、露地不施保水剂和菌肥(CK)6个处理,分析制种玉米播种前和收获后0—20,20—40 cm土壤微生物数量及酶活性动态变化和产量变化。结果表明:(1)菌肥单施或配施均可提高土壤过氧化氢酶、脲酶、蔗糖酶、磷酸酶活性和增加真菌、细菌、放线菌数量及土壤微生物碳氮含量,改善土壤微生物环境,其中保水剂配施菌肥处理改善效果最佳,其次为地膜配施菌肥处理。(2)菌肥单施对制种玉米生长影响较小,但地膜配施菌肥可显著提高制种玉米叶面积指数和干物质积累量,并能调节产量构成因子。(3)不同抗旱措施及其配施菌肥能够不同程度促进制种玉米籽粒产量形成,其中地膜配施菌肥制种玉米籽粒产量最高(10 105.64 kg/hm2),其次为单地膜覆盖(8 967.24 kg/hm2)和保水剂配施菌肥(8 323.93 kg/hm2),分别较CK显著增产61.99%,43.74%,33.43%。(4)地膜配施菌肥制种玉米水分利用效率最高(2.40 kg/m3),其次为单地膜覆盖(2.15 kg/m3)和保水剂配施菌肥(1.89 kg/m3),分别较CK显著提高80.10%,61.84%,41.80%。因此,综合考虑产量、水分生产效率及土壤微环境等指标,抗旱措施配施菌肥最佳组合方式为地膜配施菌肥,既能促进制种玉米的生长发育,又能提高灌溉水利用效率和水分利用效率,在增产的同时,还能改善耕作层土壤微环境,对河西灌区制种玉米可持续发展具有重要的意义。
英文摘要:
      The aim of this study was exploring the effects of plastic film mulching and application of water retaining agent combined with microbial fertilizer on quantity of soil microorganism, enzyme activity, and yield and water use efficiency of seed maize in Hexi Corridor. In oasis irrigation area of the Hexi Corridor, six treatments were set up, which were single plastic film mulching (AF), single application of super absorbent polymer (AW), single application of microbial fertilizer (AB), application of super absorbent polymer combined with microbial fertilizer (WB), plastic film mulching combined with microbial fertilizer (FB) and neither super absorbent polymer nor microbial fertilizer in open field (CK). The dynamic changes of soil microbial quantity, enzyme activity in 0-20 and 20-40 cm soil layer before sowing and after harvesting, and the yield of seed maize were analyzed. The results showed that:(1) Single or combined application of microbial fertilizer both could improve the activity of soil catalase, urease, invertase, phosphatase, and increase the number of fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes, and the content of soil microbial carbon and nitrogen, and improve the soil microbial environment. Among them, the effect of super absorbent polymer combined with microbial fertilizer was the best, and followed by the treatment of FB. (2) The treatment of AB had little influence on the growth of seed maize, but the treatment of FB could significantly increase the leaf area index and dry matter accumulation of seed maize, and could adjust the yield composition factors. (3) Different drought resistance measures and the combined application of microbial bacterial fertilizers could promote yield formation of seed maize. Among the different treatments, the grain yield of the FB treatment was the highest (10 105.64 kg/hm2), followed by the treatment of AF (8 967.24 kg/hm2) and WB (8 323.93 kg/hm2), and the production increased by 61.99%, 43.74% and 33.43% compared with CK, respectively. (4) The water use efficiency was the highest in the treatment of FB (2.40 kg/m3), followed by AF (2.15 kg/m3) and WB (1.89 kg/m3), and the water use efficiency significantly improved by 80.10%, 61.84% and 41.80% compared with CK, respectively. Therefore, comprehensive considering the yield, water production efficiency and soil microenvironment, the best combination of drought resistant measures combined with microbial fertilizer was plastic film mulching combined with microbial fertilizer, which could not only promote the growth and development of seed maize, but also improve irrigation water use efficiency and water use efficiency, meanwhile improve the soil micro-environment of the tillage layer, which was of great significance to the sustainable development of seed maize production in the Hexi Corridor.
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