文章摘要
刘凯, 党涛涛, 王方斌, 廖欢, 孙嘉璘, 殷星, 闵伟, 侯振安.不同毛管配置对水氮分布和机采棉根系生长的影响[J].水土保持学报,2021,35(3):268~275,283
不同毛管配置对水氮分布和机采棉根系生长的影响
Effects of Different Drip Irrigation Lateral Layout on Root Growth and Water and Nitrogen Distribution of Machine-harvested Cotton
投稿时间:2020-11-27  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2021.03.037
中文关键词: 滴灌  机采棉  布管方式  根系  水氮分布
英文关键词: drip irrigation  machine-harvested cotton  drip irrigation lateral layout  root system  water and nitrogen distribution
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0200100,2018YFD0800800)
作者单位E-mail
刘凯, 党涛涛, 王方斌, 廖欢, 孙嘉璘, 殷星, 闵伟, 侯振安 石河子大学农学院, 新疆生产建设兵团绿洲生态农业重点实验室, 新疆 石河子 832003 hzatyl@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      通过田间试验,研究不同滴灌配置对机采棉根系生长、水氮运移和氮肥利用率的影响。设置3种滴灌毛管配置方式:(1)内嵌式滴灌毛管+夹管(EB);(2)内嵌式毛管+侧管(ES);(3)迷宫式毛管+侧管(LS);施氮(N)量均为300 kg/hm2;同时,以ES处理不施氮肥为对照(CK)。结果表明:滴灌施肥24 h后,土壤水分及硝态氮均主要分布在0—40 cm土层。LS和EB处理水分和硝态氮在作物行下方的根区含量高,ES处理硝态氮分布向宽行偏移。90%以上棉花根系分布在0—30 cm土层,但EB处理根系分布更浅,其超过80%根系分布在15 cm以内土层;ES处理与LS、EB处理相比,根干物质量分别显著降低31.7%和25.5%;ES处理根长密度、根表面积、根体积显著高于LS和EB处理。LS处理显著增加产量和氮肥利用率,较ES处理分别增加9.4%和18.0%;EB处理产量和氮肥利用率也较ES处理分别增加6.5%和8.5%。机采棉使用迷宫式滴灌毛管并在侧管铺设毛管,水分和硝态氮分布与根系分布相匹配,能显著促进棉花根系生长,增加氮吸收量并提高产量和水氮利用效率。
英文摘要:
      Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of different drip irrigation lateral layout on the root growth of machine-harvested cotton, water and nitrogen transport, and nitrogen use efficiency. Three drip irrigation capillary configuration methods were set up:(1) Embedded drip irrigation lateral + center layout (EB), (2) embedded drip irrigation lateral + side layout (ES), (3) labyrinth drip irrigation lateral + side layout (LS). The amount of nitrogen (N) applied was 300 kg/hm2. At the same time, the ES treatment without nitrogen fertilizer was used as the control (CK). The results showed that after 24 hours of drip irrigation, soil moisture and nitrate nitrogen were mainly distributed in the 0-40 cm deep soil layer. The contents of water and nitrate nitrogen in the root zone below the crop row were high in LS and EB treatments, while the nitrate nitrogen in ES treatment moved to wide rows. More than 90% of cotton roots were distributed in the 0-30 cm soil layer, but the roots of the EB treatment were shallower, and more than 80% of the roots were distributed in the soil layer within 15 cm. Compared with the LS and EB treatments, the dry root matter quality of the ES treatment was significantly reduced by 31.7% and 25.5% respectively. The root length density, root surface area, root volume of ES treatment were significantly higher than those of LS and EB treatments. The LS treatment significantly increased the yield and nitrogen use efficiency, which were 9.4% and 18.0% higher than those of the ES treatment. The yield and nitrogen use efficiency of the EB treatment also increased by 6.5% and 8.5% respectively compared with the ES treatment. Machine-harvested cotton should be planted with the labyrinth drip irrigation lateral and side layout. Then the distribution of water and nitrate nitrogen would match the root system distribution better, which could significantly promote cotton root growth, increase nitrogen uptake, and increase yield and water and nitrogen use efficiency.
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