文章摘要
冯娜, 刘冬冬, 赵荣存, 李瑶.岩溶山地植被恢复中碳酸盐岩红土入渗特征及其影响因素[J].水土保持学报,2019,33(6):162~169,175
岩溶山地植被恢复中碳酸盐岩红土入渗特征及其影响因素
Infiltration Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Carbonate Laterite from Karst Mountain Areas During Vegetation Restoration
投稿时间:2019-06-02  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2019.06.023
中文关键词: 岩溶山地  水分入渗  碳酸盐岩红土  土壤理化性质
英文关键词: Karst mountain areas  water infiltration  carbonate laterite  soil physical and chemical properties
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41807016);贵州省水利科技经费项目(KT201803);黔科合平台人才项目([2017]5788);贵州大学创新创业训练计划及"SRT计划"项目(2018033,2018261)
作者单位E-mail
冯娜, 刘冬冬, 赵荣存, 李瑶 贵州大学资源与环境工程学院, 贵阳 550025 liudongdongcn@foxmail.com 
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中文摘要:
      退耕还林还草工程实施后岩溶山地林草植被结构明显改善,研究植被恢复中碳酸盐岩红土入渗特征对岩溶生态恢复有重要意义。采用盘式入渗法在不同植被覆盖(荒草、灌草丛和乔木)下分别测定不同负压水头(-0.5,-3,-6,-15 cm)的水分入渗特征,计算不同负压下非饱和导水率、土壤孔隙分布常数、各孔隙级别对水流的贡献率,明确不同植被覆盖碳酸盐岩红土入渗特性差异。结果表明:不同水头条件下荒草、灌草丛和乔木地的土壤稳渗率均随负水头增大而递增,且碳酸盐岩红土入渗达到稳渗状态所需时间较长(约120 min),在低水头下荒草地土壤稳渗率最大(0.17 mm/min),而在高水头下乔木地最大(9.17 mm/min);荒草、灌草丛和乔木地土壤饱和导水率Ks差异极显著(P<0.01),乔木地土壤饱和导水率达到最大(4.62 mm/min),而K3K6K15和Gardner α差异不显著,碳酸盐岩红土饱和导水率Ks仅受土壤有机质含量和土壤电导率控制;乔木地土壤大孔隙数量及其占比显著大于灌草丛与荒草地(P<0.05),碳酸盐岩红土导水性能主要受土壤大孔隙对水流的作用控制(>70%)。研究结果可为西南岩溶山地生态恢复和水资源承载力分析提供数据支撑和理论依据。
英文摘要:
      After the project of returning farmland to forest and grass was implemented, the forest and grass structure of Karst Mountain vegetation was improved obviously. It is of great significance to study the infiltration characteristics of carbonate laterite in Karst Mountain in vegetation restoration for the restoration and reconstruction of karst ecosystem. The water infiltration characteristics of different negative pressure heads (-0.5, -3, -6, and -15 cm) under different vegetation covers (wild grass ground, shrub-grassland, and arbor land) were measured by disc infiltration method. The contribution rate of the hydraulic conductivity, the distribution constant of soil pore size, and the grade of pore under different negative pressures to water flow was calculated. The infiltration characteristics of carbonate laterite with different vegetation covers were clarified. The results showed that a significant differences in soil steady infiltration rate among wild grass ground, shrub-grassland, and arbor land under different water head conditions. The difference of soil steady infiltration rate increased with the increase of negative head, and the time required for soil infiltration in the test area to reach the stable infiltration state was long (about 120 min). The soil steady infiltration rate of wild grass ground was the highest (0.17 mm/min) under the condition of low head, but the arbor land was the largest (9.17 mm/min) under the high water head. There was significant difference in soil saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks among wild grass ground, shrub-grassland, and arbor land (P<0.01), and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of arbor land reached the maximum (4.62 mm/min). However, there was no significant difference in K3, K6, K15, and Gardner α, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks of carbonate laterite was only controlled by soil organic matter content and soil conductivity. The quantity and the proportion of macropores in the soil of the arbor land were significantly larger than that of the shrub-grassland and the wild grass ground (P<0.05), and the water conductivity of carbonate laterite was mainly controlled by the effect of soil macropores on water flow (>70%). These results can provide data support and practical experience for ecological restoration and water resources carrying capacity analysis of Karst Mountain in Southwest China.
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