文章摘要
欧阳铖人, 字淑慧, 吴开贤, 杨友琼, 吴伯志.玉米马铃薯间作和起垄对坡面水动力学特性的影响[J].水土保持学报,2019,33(6):143~149
玉米马铃薯间作和起垄对坡面水动力学特性的影响
Effects of Maize and Potato Intercropping and Ridging on Flow Hydraulics Under Simulation Rainfall
投稿时间:2019-04-19  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2019.06.020
中文关键词: 间作  径流流速  降雨强度  阻力系数  玉米  马铃薯
英文关键词: intercropping  runoff velocity  rainfall intensity  resistance coefficient  maize  potato
基金项目:公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201503119);国家科技支撑计划专项(2015BAD06B04);云南省现代玉米产业体系项目(2016)
作者单位E-mail
欧阳铖人, 字淑慧, 吴开贤, 杨友琼, 吴伯志 云南农业大学农学与生物技术学院, 昆明 650201 Bozhiwu2003@aliyun.com 
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中文摘要:
      为了研究间作体系下地表特性对土壤侵蚀的影响,采用人工降雨法分析了玉米马铃薯间作及起垄在不同降雨强度(40,80 mm/h)下的水力学参数的变化特征。结果表明:(1)同一降雨强度下玉米马铃薯间作的阻力系数高于玉米单作处理,雷诺数、弗劳德数和径流流速低于单作玉米处理(P<0.05)。7月初80 mm/h降雨强度下玉米马铃薯间作和玉米单作的阻力系数分别为0.41~0.53和0.09~0.10;径流流速分别为0.11~0.12,0.19~0.21 m/s。玉米马铃薯间作的径流流速和阻力系数与马铃薯单作差异不显著(P>0.05)。(2)同一降雨强度下间作高垄的阻力系数最高,径流流速、雷诺数和弗劳德数最低。40 mm/h降雨强度下间作高垄、间作低垄、玉米高垄的径流流速分别比玉米低垄分别减少35.71%,35.71%和14.29%。间作条件下起垄能增加坡面流阻力,降低雷诺数和弗劳德数,进而减缓坡面径流流速,这对于坡耕地土壤侵蚀的防治以及农业的可持续发展具有重要的指导意义。
英文摘要:
      Intercropping is an important practice for controlling soil erosion in the world. However, knowledge on this phenomenon is not well understood, especially in flow hydraulics. A lab experiment was conducted to provide the theoretical basis for reducing erosion mechanisms in intercropping. Three cropping patterns i.e. maize monoculture (MC), potato monoculture (PC), and two rows of maize intercropped with two rows of potato (IC) were used under two surface roughness models:low ridging and high ridging, totaling six treatments. The runoff velocity, Reynolds number, Froude number, and Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficient were measured with two rainfall intensities (40, 80 mm/h) during the experimental periods. The results suggested that:(1) The values of IC were lower than those of MC in terms of runoff velocity, Reynolds number, and Froude number. Furthermore, the resistance coefficients in IC were higher than those in MC at the same rainfall intensity. There was no difference between IC and PC in terms of runoff velocities and resistance coefficients. In early July, the resistance coefficients were 0.41~0.53 for IC and 0.09~0.10 for MC at the rainfall intensity of 80 mm/h. The runoff velocities was 0.11~0.12 m/s for IC and 0.19~0.21 m/s for MC at the same rainfall intensity.(2) The lowest runoff velocity, Reynolds number, and Froude number were observed in intercropping with high ridging, which gave the highest resistance coefficient. In early July, the runoff velocities of intercropping with high ridging, intercropping with low ridging, and maize monoculture with high ridging were 35.71%, 35.71% and 14.29% respectively lower than that of maize sole crop with low ridging at the rainfall intensity of 40 mm/h. Thereby, intercropping could increase resistance coefficient to reduce runoff velocity, which was one of mechanism to reduce erosion in intercropping and provide an important reference for understanding the mechanism of soil erosion controlling by crop cultivation. In addition, intercropping with high ridging could effectively decrease runoff velocity on the surface, and might be contributed to the soil erosion control and sustainable development of agriculture.
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