文章摘要
黄乾, 杨海龙, 朱柱, 赵嘉玮.青海云杉造林密度与水源涵养功能的响应关系[J].水土保持学报,2019,33(4):279~286
青海云杉造林密度与水源涵养功能的响应关系
Response Relationships Between Afforestation Densities and Water Conservation Functions of Picea crassifolia
投稿时间:2019-01-23  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2019.04.039
中文关键词: 黄土高寒区  青海云杉林  水源涵养功能  造林密度
英文关键词: Loess high and cold region  Piceacrassifolia forest  water conservation function  planting density
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目"高寒丘陵区林草植被的结构优化与功能提升技术和示范"(2017YFC0504604)
作者单位E-mail
黄乾, 杨海龙, 朱柱, 赵嘉玮 北京林业大学水土保持学院, 水土保持国家林业局重点实验室, 北京 100083 yang_hlong@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      以青海省大通县安门滩小流域7种造林密度的青海云杉人工林为研究对象,利用浸水法、环刀法测定林下枯落物、草本层及0—60 cm土壤层的持水量,定量评价不同密度的青海云杉人工林水源涵养功能。结果表明:(1)不同造林密度下的林分枯落物最大持水量变化范围为1.97~7.60 m3/hm2,枯落物持水量最大的造林密度为1 725株/hm2,造林密度为2 300株/hm2的枯落物持水量最小;不同造林密度的林下草本层持水量变化范围为1.97~7.17 m3/hm2,林下草本层持水量最大的造林密度为1 575株/hm2。(2)0—60 cm土层的水源涵养功能与土壤物理性质、土壤渗透性及贮水性密切相关,土壤容重的变化范围为1.20~1.43 g/cm3,土壤总孔隙度变化范围为46.53%~53.30%,土壤容重与土壤总孔隙度随造林密度变化趋势呈负相关,密度1 575株/hm2的林地具有最小的土壤容重和最大的土壤总孔隙度;土壤渗透性能主要取决于土壤的非毛管孔隙度,二者呈显著性相关,密度为1 575株/hm2的土壤渗透性能最强,密度为2 300株/hm2的林分土壤渗透性最差;0—60 cm土层的饱和蓄水量变化范围为2 792.50~3 197.90 m3/hm2,造林密度为1 575株/hm2的土壤饱和蓄水量最大。(3)利用林地总贮水量评价水源涵养功能,林地总贮水量大小依次为D1575(3 207.37 m3/hm2) > D2300(3 164.67 m3/hm2) > D1900(3 157.17 m3/hm2) > D1650(3 141.12 m3/hm2) > D1475(3 105.91 m3/hm2) > D1725(2 998.32 m3/hm2) > D1350(2 803.68 m3/hm2)。研究结果说明造林密度为1 575株/hm2的青海云杉林水源涵养能力较好,这与当地2 m×3 m的造林规格相匹配,为青海黄土高原高寒区的青海云杉人工林可持续经营提供理论依据。
英文摘要:
      Seven afforestation densities of Picea crassifolia plantations were taken as the study object in this article in Anmentan small watershed, Datong County, Qinghai Province. Flooding method and ring knife method were used to determine water holding capacity of litter, herbaceous layer and 0-60 cm soil layer. This study quantified water conservation functions of Picea crassifolia plantation with different densities. The results showed that:(1) The maximum water holding capacities of litter varied from 1.97 m3/hm2 to 7.60 m3/hm2 for different afforestation densities. The afforestation density with the maximum litter water holding capacity was 1 725 plants/hm2, whereas the afforestation density of 2 300 plants/hm2 gave the minimum. The variation range of water holding capacities of understory herbaceous layer with different afforestation densities was as followed:1.97~7.17 m3/hm2. The maximum water holding capacity of understory herbaceous layer was 1 575 plants/hm2. (2) The water conservation functions of 0-60 cm soil layer were closely related to soil physical properties, soil permeability and water storage. The variation range of soil bulk density was 1.20~1.43 g/cm3. The total porosity in soil varied from 46.53% to 53.30%. There was a negative correlation between soil bulk density and soil total porosity with afforestation density. The forest land with density of 1 575 plants/hm2 had the smallest soil bulk density and maximum soil total porosity. The permeability of soil mainly depended on the non-capillary porosity of the soil. They had a significant correlation. The permeability of the soil with the density of 1 575 plants/hm2 was the strongest, and the worst with the density of 2 300 plants/hm2. The range of saturated water storage in 0-60 cm soil layer was between 2 792.50 to 3 197.90 m3/hm2. The soil saturated water storage with afforestation density of 1 575 plants/hm2 was the largest. (3) The water conservation functions were evaluated by using the total water storage of forest land. The order of total forest water storage was D1575(3 207.37 m3/hm2) > D2300(3 164.67 m3/hm2) > D1900(3 157.17 m3/hm2) > D1650(3 141.12 m3/hm2) > D1475(3 105.91 m3/hm2) > D1725(2 998.32 m3/hm2) > D1350(2 803.68 m3/hm2). This results matched with the local afforestation specifications of 2 m×3 m. These findings provides a theoretical basis for the sustainable management of Piceacrassifolia plantation in the high and cold region of Loess Plateau of Qinghai Province.
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