文章摘要
张彬彬, 吴淑芳, 冯浩, 陈光杰, 宋小林.有机材料结合集雨措施对山地果园理化性质的影响[J].水土保持学报,2019,33(4):241~247
有机材料结合集雨措施对山地果园理化性质的影响
Effects of Organic Materials Combined with Rainwater Collection Measures on Soil Physicochemical Properties of Mountain Apple Orchards
投稿时间:2019-01-19  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2019.04.034
中文关键词: 有机材料  集雨措施  土壤含水率  硝态氮含量  土壤容重  饱和导水率  电导率
英文关键词: organic materials  rainwater collection measures  soil moisture content  nitrate nitrogen content  soil bulk density  saturated hydraulic conductivity  electrical conductivity
基金项目:杨凌示范区产学研用协同创新重大项目(2017001451);国家"十三五"重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0403605)
作者单位E-mail
张彬彬1,2, 吴淑芳1,2, 冯浩2,3, 陈光杰1,2, 宋小林1,2 1. 西北农林科技大学水利与建筑工程学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100

2. 西北农林科技大学中国旱区节水农业研究院
, 陕西 杨凌 712100

3. 中国科学院水土保持研究所
, 陕西 杨凌 712100 
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中文摘要:
      为了解黄土丘陵区雨养条件下山地果园有机材料结合集雨措施(organic materials combined with rainwater collection measures,OMR)对苹果园土壤理化性质的影响,2016年4月在陕西延安山地苹果园,以果树树冠投影面反坡修建鱼鳞坑和集雨坑,研究了有机材料用量分别为5 250 kg/hm2(OMR1),4 500 kg/hm2(OMR2),3 750 kg/hm2(OMR3),0 kg/hm2(CK)以及传统处理T对苹果园土壤理化性质的影响,测定了0—300 cm土层土壤含水率和土壤电导率,0—200 cm土壤土层硝态氮含量和0—100 cm土层土壤容重和饱和导水率。结果表明:有机材料结合集雨措施能够显著增加果园0—300 cm土层土壤含水率,OMR2处理土壤平均含水率增加最显著,有机材料结合集雨措施处理(OMR1、OMR2、OMR3)的土壤根系湿润区主要集中在0—100 cm土层。0—300 cm土层OMR2处理土壤多次平均含水率值最高,为14.87%;OMR1、OMR3、CK和T处理的土壤多次平均含水率分别为14.74%,14.80%,12.79%和8.66%。有机材料结合集雨措施处理能够显著增加0—200 cm土层土壤硝态氮含量,尤其增加40—100 cm土层土壤的硝态氮含量;有机材料结合集雨措施能够显著降低土壤容重,尤其是20—60 cm土层的土壤容重;有机材料结合集雨措施能够增加土壤饱和导水率,尤其增加0—40 cm土层土壤的饱和导水率;有机材料结合集雨措施能够增大土壤的电导率,并且峰值出现在60—100 cm土层中,0—300 cm土层土壤电导率呈现OMR2 > OMR1 > OMR3 > CK > T。总体而言,在陕西延安采用有机材料结合集雨措施能够显著提高山地苹果园土壤含水率和土壤硝态氮含量,降低土壤容重,增大饱和导水率和电导率,使果树在适宜的环境中生长,促进当地山地果业可持续发展。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the effects of organic materials combined with rainwater collection measures (OMR) on soil physicochemical properties of apple orchard under rain-fed conditions on the Loess Plateau, apple orchards in Yan'an of Shaanxi Province were selected to conduct the experiments in April 2016. Fish scale pit and rain-collecting pit were conducted on the reverse slope of crown projection surface of apple trees, and the effects of different dosages of organic materials (5 250 kg/hm2 (OMR1), 4 500 kg/hm2 (OMR2), 3 750 kg/hm2 (OMR3) and 0 kg/hm2 (CK)) and traditional treatment (T) on soil physicochemical properties were studied. Soil water content and electrical conductivity in 0-300 cm soil layer, nitrate nitrogen content in 0-200 cm soil layer and soil bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity in 0-100 cm soil layer were determined. The results showed that OMR could significantly increase the soil moisture content in 0-300 cm soil layer, and the average soil moisture content increased most significantly in OMR2 treatment. The soil root wetting areas in OMR1, OMR2 and OMR3 treatment were mainly concentrated in 0-100 cm soil layer. In the 0-300 cm soil layer, the multiple average moisture content of OMR2 treatment was the highest (14.87%), while that of OMR1, OMR3, CK and T treatment was 14.74%, 14.80%, 12.79% and 8.66%, respectively. The OMR could significantly increase the content of nitrate nitrogen in 0-200 cm soil layer, especially in 40-100 cm soil layer. The OMR could significantly reduce soil bulk density, especially the bulk density of 20-60 cm soil layer. The OMR could increase soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, especially in 0-40 cm soil layer. The OMR could increase soil electrical conductivity, and the peak value appeared in 60-100 cm soil layer, and the electrical conductivity of 0-300 cm soil layer followed the order of OMR2 > OMR1 > OMR3 > CK > T. Overall, the OMR in Yan'an, Shaanxi could significantly improve soil moisture content, and nitrate nitrogen content, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity and electrical conductivity, reduce soil bulk density, with make fruit trees grow in suitable environment and promote sustainable development of local fruit industry.
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