文章摘要
张迎春, 颉建明, 李静, 牛天航, 夏国栋, 毛振宇, 王庆玲, 陈艺易.生物有机肥部分替代化肥对莴笋及土壤理化性质和微生物的影响[J].水土保持学报,2019,33(4):196~205
生物有机肥部分替代化肥对莴笋及土壤理化性质和微生物的影响
Effects of Partial Substitution of Chemical Fertilizer by Bio-organic Fertilizer on Asparagus Lettuce and Soil Physical-chemical Properties and Microorganisms
投稿时间:2019-02-04  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2019.04.028
中文关键词: 莴笋  生物有机肥  干物质积累  肥料利用率  土壤微生物  土壤理化性质
英文关键词: asparagus lettuce  bio-organic fertilizer  dry matter accumulation  fertilizer use efficiency  soil microorganism  soil physical-chemical properties
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0201005);甘肃省引导科技创新发展专项(2018ZX-02);甘肃省科技重大专项(17ZD2NA015)
作者单位E-mail
张迎春, 颉建明, 李静, 牛天航, 夏国栋, 毛振宇, 王庆玲, 陈艺易 甘肃农业大学园艺学院, 兰州 730070 xiejianming@gsau.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      以莴笋为试材,通过田间试验,以不施肥(CK)和常规施肥(CF)为对照,研究常规施肥总施肥量减量20%(F1)和30%(F2),配施3 000 kg/hm2(B1),6 000 kg/hm2(B2)生物有机肥对莴笋干物质积累、养分吸收、肥料利用率及土壤理化性质和土壤微生物数量的影响,为莴笋合理施肥提供科学依据。结果表明,与CF相比,F1B2处理莴笋根、茎、叶干物质积累量分别增加5.74%,22.19%和17.82%,氮、磷、钾养分积累量分别提高128.81%,113.19%和23.15%。化肥减量配施生物有机肥使氮、磷、钾肥的吸收利用率、农学利用率和偏生产力均显著提高,常规施肥的土壤氮素、磷素、钾素依存率均最高。生物有机肥显著提高土壤养分含量,F1B2和F2B2处理土壤有机质含量比CF处理分别增加71.65%和58.51%,全氮、磷、钾含量分别增加84.53%,75.41%,19.94%和70.17%,72.13%,9.28%,碱解氮、速效磷和速效钾含量分别增加75.90%,17.06%,24.35%和42.94%,13.48%,11.42%。生物有机肥部分替代化肥可增加莴笋根际土壤细菌数和放线菌数,抑制真菌的生长。同CF相比,F1B2处理的好氧自生固氮菌、厌氧自生固氮菌、硝化细菌和反硝化细菌的数量分别增加了1.36,6.10,47.50,23.76倍。细菌数量与有机质、碱解氮、速效磷、全氮含量呈显著正相关性,放线菌数量与全磷含量呈显著正相关,固氮菌和氮转化细菌的数量与碱解氮、全氮含量呈显著或极显著正相关。主成分分析综合得分表明,不同施肥处理土壤肥力次序为F1B2 > F2B2 > F1B1 > F2B1 > CF > CK。生物有机肥部分替代化肥不仅能提高莴笋养分积累量和肥料利用率,还能显著提高土壤养分含量,调节土壤微生物结构,改善莴笋根际土壤理化性状,综合对莴笋养分吸收积累和肥料利用效率的提高及土壤的培肥效果,F1B2处理最好,是实现肥料资源合理利用和改善土壤环境的良好施肥模式。
英文摘要:
      A field experiment was conducted using asparagus lettuce as test material to study the effects of different fertilizer combinations on dry matter accumulation, nutrients absorption, fertilizer use efficiency, soil physical-chemical properties and soil microbial quantity, which could provide the scientific basis for reasonable fertilization of asparagus lettuce. The experiment used a completely randomized block design to set a conventional fertilization (CF), reduction of 20% (F1) and 30% (F2) and combined with 3 000 kg/hm2 (B1) and 6 000 kg/hm2 (B2) bio-organic fertilizer. The results showed that compared with the CF, the accumulations of dry matter in roots, stems and leaves of F1B2 treatment were increased by 5.74%, 22.19% and 17.82%, respectively, and the accumulations of N, P and K nutrients were increased by 128.81%, 113.19% and 23.15%, respectively. The reduction of fertilizer combined with bio-organic fertilizer could significantly improve the fertilizer use efficiency, agronomic efficiency and partial factor productivity of N, P and K fertilizers. The soil N, P and K dependent rates of CF were the highest. The application of bio-organic fertilizer could significantly increase soil nutrients contents. Compared with CF, the contents of soil organic matter, total N, P, K and alkaline N, available P and available K were increased by 71.65%, 84.53%, 75.41%, 19.94%, 75.90%, 17.06% and 24.35% respectively in F1B2, and were increased by 58.51%, 70.17%, 72.13%, 9.28%, 42.94%, 13.48% and 11.42% respectively in F2B2. The combination of chemical fertilizer and bio-organic fertilizer could increase the number of bacteria and actinomycetes in the soil of asparagus lettuce, and inhibit the growth of fungi. Compared with CF, the number of aerobic azotobacter, anaerobic azotobacter, nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria were increased by 1.36, 6.10, 47.50 and 23.76 times, respectively in F1B2. The number of bacteria was significantly positively correlated with the contents of organic matter, alkaline N, available P and total N. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of actinomycetes and the contents of total P. The number of azotobacters and nitrogen transformational bacteria showed a significant or extremely significant positive correlation with the contents of alkaline N and total N. According to the principal component analysis and comprehensive scores, the soil quality under different fertilization treatments with the following sequence of F1B2, F2B2, F1B1, F2B1, CF and CK. The partial substitution of chemical fertilizer by bio-organic fertilizer could not only improve the amount of asparagus lettuce's nutrients accumulation and fertilizer use efficiency, but also significantly increase the contents of soil nutrients, regulate the structure of soil microbial community, and improve soil physical and chemical properties. In summary, the partial substitution of chemical fertilizer by bio-organic fertilizer had a good effect on the nutrients accumulation of asparagus lettuce, and could improve the fertilizer use efficiency and soil fertility. The F1B2was a good fertilization mode with a rational use of fertilizer resources and improved soil environment.
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