文章摘要
龙潜, 董士刚, 朱长伟, 刘芳, 姜桂英, 申凤敏, 刘世亮.不同耕作模式对小麦—玉米轮作下潮土养分和作物产量的影响[J].水土保持学报,2019,33(4):167~174,298
不同耕作模式对小麦—玉米轮作下潮土养分和作物产量的影响
Effects of Different Tillage Modes on Soil Nutrient and Crop Yield Under Wheat-Maize Rotation System in the Fluvo-aquic Soil
投稿时间:2019-02-16  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2019.04.024
中文关键词: 潮土  深松  轮耕  土壤养分  产量
英文关键词: fluvo-aquic soil  deep tillage  rotational tillage  soil nutrients  yield
基金项目:国家重点研发计划重点专项(2016YFD0300803);国家自然科学基金项目(41401327);中国农业科学院开放基金项目(2015)
作者单位E-mail
龙潜, 董士刚, 朱长伟, 刘芳, 姜桂英, 申凤敏, 刘世亮 河南农业大学资源与环境学院, 郑州 450002 jgy9090@126.com;shlliu70@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      通过分析裂区设计下的6个处理,即小麦季深耕和旋耕2个主处理×玉米季免耕播种、行间深松和行内深松3个副处理:(1)旋耕+免耕播种(RT—NT);(2)旋耕+行间深松(RT—SBR);(3)旋耕+行内深松(RT—SIR);(4)深耕+免耕播种(DT—NT);(5)深耕+行间深松(DT—SBR);(6)深耕+行内深松(DT—SIR),对土壤养分含量和作物产量影响,筛选适宜于小麦—玉米轮作体系的耕作模式。结果表明,各处理土壤养分含量在小麦、玉米两季中均随土层深度增加而降低。小麦季,旋耕处理0—10 cm土层土壤全氮、碱解氮、有效磷含量、硝态氮含量显著高于深耕处理;但深耕增加当季30—40 cm土层土壤有机质、全氮、碱解氮、有效磷、硝态氮、铵态氮含量。玉米季,DT—NT处理0—30 cm土层有机质含量较RT—NT处理增加40.1%~64.3%。RT—SBR、RT—SIR处理显著提升土壤0—30 cm全氮含量,其中RT—SBR处理0—10 cm土层全氮含量最高,为1.4 g/kg。RT—SIR处理显著增加0—20 cm土壤碱解氮含量,较RT—NT显著增加15.0%~25.3%。在0—40 cm土层,DT—SBR处理的有效磷含量最高,而RT—SBR处理的速效钾含量最高。DT—SIR处理显著提升20—50 cm土层硝态氮和铵态氮含量,其中硝态氮含量为8.5~30.4 mg/kg,铵态氮含量为2.6~8.9 mg/kg。与小麦季相比,玉米季提升10—20 cm土层有机质含量、0—50 cm土层的碱解氮、有效磷、速效钾含量以及40—50 cm土层的硝态氮、铵态氮含量。DT—SBR和DT—SIR处理穗长、百粒重、收获指数和产量显著高于其他处理,且二者产量较RT—NT处理显著增加6.4%~10.8%。玉米季DT—SIR处理的肥料偏利用率和经济效益最高。综上所述,深耕+行内深松处理有利于增加土壤养分含量,且增产效果较好,在本研究中最优。
英文摘要:
      The objective of this study was to select the optimum tillage pattern though studying the effect of the different tillage patterns on the soil nutrient and crop yield. The field experiment was conducted with split plot design with six treatments:two main treatments with rotary tillage and deep tillage in wheat season, combined with three subsidiary treatments with no-tillage sowing, subsoiling between the row and subsoiling in the row in maize season, including (1) rotary tillage + no-tillage sowing (RT-NT); (2) rotary tillage +subsoiling between the row (RT-SBR); (3) rotary tillage + subsoiling in the row (RT-SIR); (4) deep tillage + no-tillage sowing (DT-NT); (5) deep tillage + subsoiling between the row (DT-SBR); (6) deep tillage +subsoiling in the row (DT-SIR). The results showed that, all the soil nutrient contents decreased with soil depths in both wheat and maize seasons. In wheat season, the total nitrogen (TN), alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) contents under rotary tillage treatments were significantly higher than those under deep tillage treatments; while, the soil organic matter (SOM), TN, AN, AP, NO3--N, and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) contents in 30-40 cm was increased under deep tillage treatments. In maize season, the SOM content in 0-30 cm under DT-NT treatment was increased by 40.1%~64.3% compared with RT-NT treatment. The TN content in 0-30 cm was increased under RT-SBR and RT-SIR treatment, with the highest value of 1.4 g/kg in 0-10 cm under RT-SBR treatment. The AN content was increased by 15.0%~25.3% in 0-20 cm under RT-SIR treatment compared with RT-NT treatment. In 0-40 cm, the highest AP content was observed under DT-SBR treatment, and the highest available potassium (AK) content was under RT-SBR treatment. The NO3--N (8.5~30.4 mg/kg) and NH4+-N (2.6~8.9 mg/kg) contents in 20-50 cm under DT-SIR treatment were significantly higher than the others. Compared with the wheat season, the SOM in 10-20 cm, AN, AP and AK in 0-50 cm, NO3--N and NH4+-N in 40-50 cm were increased in maize season. In maize season, the ear length, 100-grain weight, harvest index and yield under DT-SBR and DT-SIR were significantly higher than the others, and the yield was increased by 6.4%~10.8% under DT-SBR and DT-SIR compared with RT-NT treatment. The fertilizer partial productivity and economic benefit was highest under DT-SIR treatment in maize season. In sum, the soil nutrient contents and crop yield were improved under the DT-SIR treatment, which was suggested as the optimum practice in this study.
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