文章摘要
赵彩衣, 王媛媛, 董青君, 付利波, 陈华, 陈检锋, 刘满强, 徐莉, 李辉信, 胡锋, 焦加国.不同水肥处理对苕子和后茬玉米生长及土壤肥力的影响[J].水土保持学报,2019,33(4):161~166,269
不同水肥处理对苕子和后茬玉米生长及土壤肥力的影响
Influence of Different Irrigation and Fertilization Treatments on the Growth of Viciavillosa Rothvar and Later-cropping Maize and Soil Fertility
投稿时间:2018-12-31  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2019.04.023
中文关键词: 光叶紫花苕子  土壤肥力  玉米产量  养分累积
英文关键词: Viciavillosa Rothvar  soil fertility  maize yield  nutrient accumulation
基金项目:国家绿肥产业技术体系(CARS-22-G-10)
作者单位E-mail
赵彩衣1, 王媛媛1, 董青君1, 付利波2, 陈华2, 陈检锋2, 刘满强1, 徐莉1, 李辉信1, 胡锋1, 焦加国1 1. 南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院, 南京 210095

2. 云南省农业科学研究院农业环境资源研究所
, 昆明 650205 
jiaguojiao@njau.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      在田间试验条件下,研究不同水肥处理对光叶紫花苕子(简称苕子)生长,及其翻压后对后茬玉米产量和土壤肥力的影响。结果表明,灌溉和施肥均显著促进苕子生长。在绿肥季,不论施肥与否,灌溉处理均可显著提高苕子的生物量、根系活力和N、P养分累积,NPW (绿肥季施氮磷肥和灌溉)和CKW处理(绿肥季不施肥,只进行灌溉处理)的苕子生物量、根系活力和N、P养分累积分别比相应的未灌溉处理提高34.58%和56.10%,26.49%和37.92%,43.47%和146.89%,103.84%和113.94%。苕子翻压的养分还田量为125.32~274.49 kg/hm2,约占玉米季化肥总养分的26.95%~59.03%。与冬闲处理(CF)相比,不同施肥和灌溉处理的绿肥翻压均促进玉米产量和养分累积,以及土壤养分含量的提高,其中以NPW处理的提升效果最明显。周年等养分条件下,玉米季15.56%氮或50.00%磷肥料前移至绿肥季,可明显促进绿肥养分还田量的增加,后茬玉米产量(增幅为8.39%~31.19%)和养分累积量(增幅为7.31%~29.20%)也有不同程度的增加。综上,在适量灌溉和施肥条件下,苕子生物量明显增加,进而促进后茬玉米产量和养分累积量增加。研究结果可为我国绿肥农田应用及化肥减施提供数据支撑和实践依据。
英文摘要:
      We studied the effects of different irrigation and fertilization treatments on the growth of Viciavillosa Rothvar (Vetch) and the effects of the green manure on the growth of later-maize yield and soil fertility through field experiments. The results showed that both irrigation and fertilization significantly promoted the growth of Vetch. In the green manure season, irrigation could significantly increase the biomass, root activity, nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients accumulation of Vetch, whether fertilized or not. The Vetch biomass, root activity, nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients accumulation of NPW (applying nitrogen, phosphorus fertilizer and irrigation in green manure season) and CKW (no fertilization in green manure season, only irrigation treatment) consistently increased by 34.58% and 56.10%, 26.49% and 37.92%, 43.47% and 146.89%, 103.84% and 113.94%, respectively, compared with the corresponding no irrigated treatment. The amount of nutrients returned from the residual Vetch were 125.32~274.49 kg/hm2, which accounted for 26.95%~59.03% of the total nutrients of chemical fertilizer in maize season. Compared with CF treatment (winter idle land treatment), the green manure growing under different fertilization and irrigation treatments promoted maize yield and nutrients accumulation and increased soil nutrients, and among the treatments, the effect of NPW treatment was the best. Under the same annual nutrient condition, 15.56% of nitrogen or 50.00% of phosphorus fertilization in the maize season transferred forward to the green manure growing season, which could significantly increase the amount of green manure nutrient returned to the field, the maize yield (8.39%~31.19%) and nutrients accumulation (7.31%~29.20%). In conclusion, under the conditions of appropriate irrigation and fertilization, the biomass of Vetch increased significantly, which had consistent increased the yield and nutrients accumulation of later-maize. The results could provide data support and practical basis for the application of green manure infield managements and fertilizer reduction in China.
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