文章摘要
梁海, 陈宝成, 韩惠芳, 王少博, 王桂伟, 韩哲, 陈剑秋.控释肥、普通肥分层施肥对氮磷钾养分迁移的影响[J].水土保持学报,2019,33(4):154~160
控释肥、普通肥分层施肥对氮磷钾养分迁移的影响
Effects of Controlled Release Fertilizer and Common Fertilizer on NPK Nutrient Transport
投稿时间:2019-02-21  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2019.04.022
中文关键词: 控释肥  普通肥  分层施肥  养分迁移
英文关键词: controlled-release fertilizer  common fertilizer  layed fertilizer  nutrient transport
基金项目:农业部公益性行业(农业)科研专项"水浇地合理耕层构建技术指标研究"(201503117);国家"十三五"重点研发计划项目"纳米复合包膜缓控释掺混肥料研制与应用"(2017YFD0200705)
作者单位E-mail
梁海1,3, 陈宝成1,2, 韩惠芳1, 王少博1, 王桂伟1,2, 韩哲1,2, 陈剑秋3 1. 土肥资源高效利用国家工程实验室, 山东 泰安 271018

2. 山东农业大学资源与环境学院
, 山东 泰安 271018

3. 养分资源高效开发与综合利用国家重点实验室
, 金正大生态工程集团股份有限公司, 山东 临沭 276000 
bcch108205@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      为了研究不同分层施肥对养分迁移的影响,通过土柱淋洗试验,以混施(肥料撒施后翻耕)为对照,设置不施肥、普通尿素和控释尿素分别与磷钾肥掺混后进行1层(深度5 cm)、2层(5,10 cm)、3层(5,10,15 cm)施肥处理,研究不同分层施肥处理对养分淋洗总量、肥料养分淋洗率的影响。结果表明,普通肥分层施肥的无机氮淋洗总量显著低于对照,其中3层施肥处理最低,且显著低于其他各处理;控释肥各分层施肥处理无机氮淋洗量总体低于控释肥混施,但未达显著水平;各分层施肥处理对有效磷的总淋洗量无显著影响;普通肥3层施肥处理速效钾淋洗总量最高,且显著高于普通肥混施,而控释肥分层施肥中速效钾淋洗总量也是以3层施肥处理最高,且显著高于控释肥1层施肥。不同分层施肥对肥料养分淋洗率表现出较大差异,普通肥混施处理氮淋洗率为9.9%,普通肥1层、2层、3层处理淋洗率分别为6.31%,4.91%,2.70%,分层施肥各处理淋洗率均显著低于混施处理,控释肥混施处理淋洗量为3.28%,控释肥1层、2层、3层处理淋洗率分别为1.48%,2.00%,2.63%,分层施肥处理淋洗率均低于混施处理,但未达显著水平;普通肥分层施肥处理磷肥损失率为0.03%~0.05%,而控释肥分层施肥处理磷肥损失率为0.07%~0.08%,均未达显著水平;普通肥分层施肥处理中混施钾肥淋洗率为0.35%,1层、2层、3层施肥处理淋洗率分别为0.40%,0.49%,0.55%,其中3层处理淋洗率显著高于混施处理,控释肥混施处理钾肥淋洗量为0.24%,1层、2层、3层施肥处理淋洗率分别为0.20%,0.27%,0.37%,其中控释肥3层淋洗率显著高于混施处理。各处理pH总体为7.22~8.24,各次淋洗各处理间pH无显著差异,各处理电导率随着淋洗的进行出现显著的下降,第1次淋洗普通肥各处理电导率为7 547.00~9 360.00 μS/cm,控释肥各处理电导率为5 570.00~9 370.00 μS/cm,至第4次则分别下降为1 985.67~2 470.00 μS/cm与1 804.67~2 576.67 μS/cm。综上,普通尿素分层施肥无机氮淋洗总量显著低于肥料混施,以3层施肥最低;控释尿素各分层施肥无机氮淋洗量总体低于肥料混施,但差异不显著;各分层施肥对磷素总淋洗量无显著影响;普通肥3层施肥速效钾淋洗总量显著高于肥料混施;随着淋洗次数的增多,各处理淋溶液电导率均出现显著的下降,pH则不同程度上升。
英文摘要:
      In order to study the effects of different layered fertilization on nutrient transport, a soil column leaching experiment was conducted. Taking the mixed application (ploughing after fertilizer application) as control, and no fertilizer, common urea and controlled release urea were mixed with phosphorus and potassium fertilizer respectively. A layer (depth 5 cm), two layers (5, 10 cm), three layers (5, 10, 15 cm) were applied to study the total nutrient leaching and fertilizer nutrient leaching rate under different layered fertilization treatments. The results showed that the total amount of inorganic nitrogen leaching in the layered application of common fertilizer was significantly lower than the control, and the three-layer fertilization gave the lowest. The leaching of inorganic nitrogen was generally low in all layered fertilization treatments. The application of controlled release fertilizer did not reach a significant level compared with the control. All layered fertilization treatments had no significant effect on the total leaching of available phosphorus. Compared with the mixed application, and the total amount of available potassium leaching under controlled-release fertilizer layered fertilization was also the highest in the three-layer fertilization treatment. Different layered fertilizations showed a great difference in the leaching rate of fertilizer nutrient. The nitrogen leaching rate of common fertilizer application was 9.9%, and the leaching rates of common fertilizer under one layer, two layers and three layers application treatments were 6.31%. 4.91% and 2.7% respectivley, the leaching rates of layered fertilization treatments were significantly lower than that of mixed application. The leaching rate of controlled release fertilizer was 3.28%. The leaching rates of one layer, two layers and three layers applications of controlled release fertilizer were 1.48%, 2.00% and 2.63%, respectively, the leaching rate of layered fertilization treatments were lower than that of mixed application, but it did not reach a significant level. The loss rate of phosphate fertilizer treated by layered application of common fertilizer was between 0.03%~0.05%, and 0.07%~0.08% for the layered fertilization treatments, both of which did not reach the significant level. The leaching rate of mixed application of potassium fertilizer in the normal fertilizer layered fertilization treatment was 0.35%, and the leaching rates of one layer, two layers and three layers of fertilization treatments were 0.40%, 0.49% and 0.55%, respectively, among which, the leaching rate of three-layer treatment was significantly higher than the mixed application treatment. The leaching amount of controlled release fertilizer mixed with potassium treatment was 0.24%, and 0.20%, 0.27% and 0.37%, respectively for the one layer, two layers, three layers applicaiton treatments. The leaching rates of controlled release fertilizer under three layers application was significantly higher than that of mixed application. The pH of each treatment varied from 7.22 to 8.24. There was no significant difference in pH among treatments. The electrical conductivity decreased significantly with the leaching for all treatments. The electrical conductivity of the first leaching treatment was the same, i.e., 7 547.00~9 360.00 μS/cm for the common fertilizer, and 5 570.00~9 370.00 μS/cm for the controlled release fertilizer. The electrical conductivity decreased to 1 985.67~2 470.00 μS/cm and 1 804.67~2 576.67 μS/cm respectively at the fourth leaching time. In summary, the total leaching amount of inorganic nitrogen in the common urea layered fertilization was significantly lower than that of the mixed fertilizer, and the three-layer fertilization was the lowest. The inorganic nitrogen leaching amount of the controlled-release urea was lower than that of the mixed fertilizer, but the difference was not significant. The layered application had no significant effect on the total leaching amount of phosphorus; the total leaching amount of available potassium of the common fertilizer three-layer application was significantly higher than that of the mixed fertilizer treatment. With the increase of leaching times, the electrical conductivity of leachate decreased significantly for all treatments, but the pH increased with the different degrees.
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