文章摘要
徐文秀, 鲍玉海, 韦杰, 杨玲, 贺秀斌, 李进林.水库消落带典型草本植物根系对土壤抗冲性能的影响[J].水土保持学报,2019,33(4):65~71,109
水库消落带典型草本植物根系对土壤抗冲性能的影响
Impacts of the Typical Herbaceous Plant Roots on Soil Scour Resistance in the Reservoir Riparian Zone
投稿时间:2019-01-14  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2019.04.010
中文关键词: 抗冲性能  草本植物根系  抗冲指数  水库消落带
英文关键词: soil anti-scourability  root system of herbaceous plants  index of soil anti-scourability  reservoir riparian zone
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41571278,41771321);四川省科技计划项目(2018SZ0132);重庆市研究生科研创新项目(CYS18293)
作者单位E-mail
徐文秀1,2, 鲍玉海1, 韦杰2,3, 杨玲1,4, 贺秀斌1, 李进林1,4 1. 中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所山地表生过程与生态调控重点实验室, 成都 610041

2. 重庆师范大学地理与旅游学院
, 重庆 401331

3. 三峡库区地表过程与环境遥感重庆市重点实验室
, 重庆 401331

4. 中国科学院大学
, 北京 100049 
byh@imde.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为明确水库消落带典型草本植物根系对土壤抵抗径流侵蚀性能的影响,以裸地为对照,通过原状土冲刷试验研究了狗牙根、扁穗牛鞭草和苍耳3种草地0—20 cm土层的土壤抗冲性能,并探讨了不同草本植物的根系特征及其对土壤抗冲性能的影响。结果表明:(1)3种草本植物根系均集中分布在0—10 cm土层,扁穗牛鞭草的根重密度、根长密度、根表面积密度和根体积密度均显著高于狗牙根和苍耳(P<0.05)。(2)冲刷过程中各土样的径流含沙量均是先急剧降低后趋于稳定,放水冲刷0~3 min含沙量较高且快速降低,3~6 min缓慢降低,6~10 min趋于平稳。与对照相比,不同草地在10 min冲刷过程中均可有效减少径流含沙量,其中0—10 cm土层的径流含沙量大小表现为对照 > 狗牙根 > 苍耳 > 扁穗牛鞭草,10—20 cm土层则表现为对照 > 狗牙根 > 扁穗牛鞭草 > 苍耳。(3)冲刷过程中各土样的土壤抗冲指数均为先缓慢增大后迅速增大,抗冲指数在0~3 min内较小且缓慢增大,3~6 min时逐渐增大,6 min后迅速增大。与对照相比,不同草本植物根系均可有效增加土壤抗冲指数,其中各草地0—10 cm土层的抗冲指数与对照相比有显著差异,扁穗牛鞭草草地土壤抗冲指数最大,是对照的2.15倍,其次为苍耳、狗牙根草地,分别为对照的1.60,1.43倍;10—20 cm土层扁穗牛鞭草和苍耳草地的土壤抗冲指数与对照相比仍具有显著差异,而狗牙根草地则差异不显著。(4)草本植物根系对土壤抗冲性能的增强效应主要发生在0—10 cm土层,扁穗牛鞭草根系对土壤抗冲性能的增强效应最大,其次是苍耳,狗牙根最小。土壤抗冲性能的提高与根系分布、形态指标等密切相关,D≤1.5 mm径级根系根表面积密度和根体积密度是影响土壤抗冲指数的关键因子。
英文摘要:
      To investigate the impacts of typical herbaceous plants roots on soil resistance to runoff erosion in the reservoir riparian zone, simulation flume experiments of undisturbed-soil were carried out to study the soil erosion resistance of 0-20 cm soil layers of three grasslands (Cynodon dactylon, Hemarthria compressa and Xanthium sibiricum), and the bare land was taken as CK, and the root characteristics of different herbaceous plants and their effects on soil erosion resistance were also discussed. The results indicated that:(1) The roots of the three herbaceous plants mainly distributed in 0-10 cm soil layer, root weight density, root length density, root surface area density and root volume density of H. compressa were significantly higher than those of C. dactylon and X. sibiricum (P<0.05). (2) With the prolonging of scouring time, the runoff sediment concentration of all soil samples decreased sharply at first and then gradually stabilized. The sediment concentration was higher and decreased rapidly within 0~3 min after discharge, decreased slowly within 3~6 min and stabilized within 6~10 min. Compared with the CK, the runoff sediment content could be effectively reduced in the different grasslands in the 10-minute scouring process. The runoff sediment concentration of 0-10 cm soil layer followed the order of CK > C. dactylon > X. sibiricum > H. compressa, while that of 10-20 cm soil layer followed the order of CK > C. dactylon > H. compressa > X. sibiricum. (3) During the scouring process, the index of soil anti-scourability increased slowly at first and then increased rapidly, it was small and increased slowly within 0~3 min, gradually increased within 3~6 min and rapidly increased within 6~10 min. Compared with the CK, the root systems of different herbaceous plants could effectively increase the soil anti-scourindex, while there was a significantly difference between the three grasslands and the CK in 0-10 cm soil layer. The index of soil anti-scourability of H. compressa grassland was the largest, which was 2.15 times of the CK, followed by X. sibiricum and C. dactylon grasslands, which were 1.60 times and 1.43 times of the CK, respectively. Furthermore, there also was a significantly difference in the index of soil anti-scourability between the grasslands and the CK in 10-20 cm soil layer besides the C. dactylon grassland. (4) The enhancement effects of herbaceous roots on soil anti-scourability mainly occurred in 0-10 cm soil layer, and the enhancement effects of H. compressa roots on soil anti-scourability was the largest, followed by X. sibiricum and C. dactylon. The soil anti-scourability was closely related to root distribution and morphological indexes, especially root surface area density and root volume density of roots with diameter (D) ≤ 1.5 mm.
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