文章摘要
刘小飞, 费良军, 段爱旺, 刘祖贵, 孟兆江.调亏灌溉对冬小麦产量和品质及其关系的调控效应[J].水土保持学报,2019,33(3):276~282,291
调亏灌溉对冬小麦产量和品质及其关系的调控效应
Effect of Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI) on Grain Yield and Quality Traits of Winter Wheat and Their Relationship
投稿时间:2018-10-31  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2019.03.041
中文关键词: 籽粒品质  籽粒产量  灌溉  冬小麦  调亏灌溉(RDI)
英文关键词: grain quality  grain yield  irrigation  winter wheat  regulated deficit irrigation (RDI)
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(U1404528,51079153);现代农业小麦产业技术体系专项(CARS-3-1-30);国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201503130);中央级科研院所基本科研业务费专项(中国农业科学院农田灌溉研究所)(FIRI2017-02)
作者单位E-mail
刘小飞1,2, 费良军2, 段爱旺1, 刘祖贵1, 孟兆江1 1. 中国农业科学院农田灌溉研究所, 农业部作物需水与调控重点开放实验室, 河南 新乡 453002

2. 西安理工大学水资源研究所
, 西安 710048 
zhaojiang_meng@aliyun.com 
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中文摘要:
      在大型启闭式防雨棚条件下,采用筒栽土培法,以专用型冬小麦(Triticum aestivum L.)为试验材料,就调亏灌溉(regulated deficit irrigation,RDI)对冬小麦籽粒产量和品质性状及其关系的影响进行了试验研究,旨在寻求适宜的水分调亏阶段(时期)和调节亏水度,为建立节水高产优质冬小麦RDI模式与指标提供技术参数。筒栽试验采用二因素(水分调亏阶段和调节亏水度)随机区组设计,冬小麦设置3个水分调亏阶段:返青—拔节(I)、拔节—抽穗(Ⅱ)、抽穗—成熟(Ⅲ))每个调亏阶段设置3个水分调亏程度:轻度调亏(L)、中度调亏(M)和重度调亏(S),土壤相对含水率(绝对含水率占田间最大持水率的百分数)分别为60%~65%,50%~55%,40%~45%。结果表明:小麦籽粒蛋白质含量与土壤含水量并非总是呈负相关关系,不同生育阶段控水对蛋白质含量的影响存在明显差异性,小麦蛋白质含量仅与拔节—抽穗期土壤相对含水量呈负相关关系。在小麦拔节以前施加轻度(60%~65%)或中度(50%~55%)水分调亏,籽粒产量、蛋白质产量和氨基酸产量等不会显著降低,甚或略有增产,重度(40%~45%)调亏会导致显著减产)拔节-抽穗期,即使是轻度调亏也会导致显著减产)灌浆期轻度调亏不会导致籽粒和蛋白质产量显著减少,而氨基酸产量略有增加,并且节水效果显著。小麦籽粒产量与蛋白质含量并非总是存在显著的负相关性,在一定条件下可以减弱或改变这种关系)小麦籽粒产量与品质性状间的关系在不同阶段RDI条件下存在显著差异性。据此认为,高产与优质的矛盾并非不可协调,初步证实了RDI提高小麦籽粒品质效应的真实存在和在小麦生产中"以水调质"的可行性。
英文摘要:
      Under conditions of large-scale open-closed type rain-proof shelter, effects of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on grain yield and quality of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and their relationship were studied by the method of tubular soil cultivation, and the aim was to find suitable appropriate stages to impose RDI and degrees of water deficit, offering technical parameters to the establishment of RDI model with water-saving, high yield and good quality. A two-factor (RDI stages and the amount of water deficit) randomize block design was adopted in the pot experiment. Three water regulation deficit stages (beginning of spring growth (I), stem elongation (Ⅱ) and grain filling (Ⅲ)) were set up, and each stage included three levels of water deficit (60%~65%, 50%~55% and 40%~45% of the maximum field capacity for light, moderate and severe deficit, respectively). The results indicated that the grain protein content of winter wheat was not always negatively correlated with soil water content. There were differences in effects of RDI on grain protein content at different growing stages. The correlation between grain protein content and soil water moisture was negative at the stage Ⅱ. Light (60%~65%) or middle degree (50%~55%) of water deficit before jointing stage did not significantly reduce grain yield, protein yield and amino acid content, or even slightly increase grain yield, but severe degree (40%~45%) of water deficit would lead to significant yield reduction. However, even slight water deficit resulted in serious yields reduction after jointing stage. Light degree of water deficit at grain filling stage did not significantly decrease grain yield, but enhanced the water-saving effects and slightly increased amino acid yield. The results also showed that the correlation between grain yield and protein content was not always negative, which could be weakened or changed under certain conditions. There were significant differences in the relationship between grain yield and quality traits at different RDI stages Therefore, it was suggested that coordinating high grain yield in contradiction to good grain quality might be possible. The results of this study preliminarily confirmed that RDI was a practicable technique for coordinating relationship between grain yield and quality characters in winter wheat.
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