文章摘要
马鹏毅, 赵家锐, 何威明, 翟丙年, 刘占军.黄土高原不同树龄苹果园土壤水分及硝态氮剖面特征[J].水土保持学报,2019,33(3):192~198,214
黄土高原不同树龄苹果园土壤水分及硝态氮剖面特征
Evaluating the Vertical Distributions of Soil Moisture and Nitrate in Apple Orchards with Different Ages in the Loess Plateau
投稿时间:2018-11-23  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2019.03.029
中文关键词: 黄土高原  土地利用方式  苹果园  土壤水分  硝态氮
英文关键词: Loess Plateau  land use type  apple orchard  soil water  soil nitrate
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200104);公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201303104);陕西省农业科技创新转化项目(NYKJ-2015-17)
作者单位E-mail
马鹏毅1, 赵家锐1, 何威明2, 翟丙年1, 刘占军1 1. 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100

2. 北京市土肥工作站
, 北京 100029 
zjliu@nwsuaf.edu.cn;zhaibingnian@nwsuaf.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为揭示黄土高原农田转变为苹果园后土壤水分及硝态氮剖面变化特征,以洛川县为研究区,采集农田(对照)和8,17,25年苹果园共40个0-600 cm剖面土样,分析土壤水分、NO3--N浓度及其储量。结果表明:与农田相比,8年苹果园0-600 cm土壤水分含量及贮水量偏高(旧县镇)或相当(槐柏镇),而NO3--N浓度及其累积量则没有显著差异)17,25年苹果园0-600 cm土层贮水量则显著降低(P<0.05),分别下降150,230 mm,且该差异主要与300 cm以下土层水分变化有关)0-500 cm土层NO3--N浓度随苹果种植年限显著增加,17,25年苹果园0-600 cm土层NO3--N累积量分别为6 830,8 370 kg/hm2,二者显著高于农田(695 kg/hm2)和8年果园(440 kg/hm2)。综合可知,农田转变为苹果园这一土地利用方式变化可导致深层土壤水分亏缺(>300 cm)和硝态氮累积,黄土高原大力发展苹果种植过程中应重视蓄水保墒及氮肥减施等措施。
英文摘要:
      To characterize the changes in vertical distributions of soil moisture and nitrate following conversion to apple orchard from cropland in the Loess Plateau, 40 600 cm depth soil profiles were sampled from farmland (as control), 8, 17 and 25 yr old apple orchards in Luochuan county to determine soil moisture content, nitrate concentration and their storage. The results showed that 8 yr old apple orchards were similar to cropland in soil nitrate concentrations (SNC) and residual soil nitrate (RSN), and also presented equal (Jiuxian) or even higher (Huanbai) values of soil moisture content (SWC) and soil water storage (SWS) when compared with cropland. In contrast, the 17 and 25 yr old apple orchards significantly decreased SWS by 150 and 230 mm, respectively, which was mainly associated with the SWC changes in soils deeper than 300 cm. SNCs in the 0-500 cm layers increased significantly with the standing ages of apple orchard, and RSNs accumulated in the 0-600 cm profile were 6 830 and 8 370 kg/hm2, corresponding to 17 and 25 yr old apple orchards, respectively, which were appreciably higher than that of 8 yr old apple orchard (440 kg/hm2) and cropland (695 kg/hm2). Thus, we concluded that converting cropland to apple orchard could result in soil water deficit, especially in > 300 cm soil depth, and nitrate accumulation, so, the strategies including water-conserving and strict controls on N fertilizer should be adopted to mitigate the unfavorable impacts caused by the enlargement of apple orchard in the Loess Plateau.
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