文章摘要
张云云, 张毓涛, 师庆东, 李吉玫, 芦建江.天山北坡中段草地、林地积雪消融过程的定量化分析[J].水土保持学报,2019,33(3):108~114
天山北坡中段草地、林地积雪消融过程的定量化分析
Quantitative Analysis of Snow Melting Process in Grassland and Forest Land on the Middle Section of Northern Slope of Tianshan Mountain
投稿时间:2019-01-02  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2019.03.017
中文关键词: 积雪深度  积雪密度  液态含水率  雪温  径流量  积雪消融  天山北坡
英文关键词: snow depth  snow density  liquid water content  snow temperature  runoff  snow melting  north slope of Tianshan Mountains
基金项目:国家"十二五"农村领域国家科技计划项目(2015BAD07B0303)
作者单位E-mail
张云云1, 张毓涛2, 师庆东1,3, 李吉玫2, 芦建江2 1. 新疆大学资源与环境科学学院, 乌鲁木齐 830046

2. 新疆林业科学院森林生态研究所
, 乌鲁木齐 830000

3. 新疆大学教育部绿洲生态重点实验室
, 乌鲁木齐 830046 
zyt218@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      依托天山森林生态系统定位站,选择典型区域设置林地、草地固定观测小区,在积雪消融期对林地和草地积雪特性(雪深、雪密度、液态含水率、雪温)、产流量、侵蚀量以及常规气象指标进行定量化观测,对比分析林地和草地的积雪消融过程。结果表明:积雪消融期林地树冠对降雪的截留量约为56.8%,草地平均积雪深度是林地2.5倍)因树冠截留雪受重力作用下降使融雪产流后期林地积雪深度下降速率大于草地)林地融雪产流的时间比草地早,产流期林地和草地积雪层密度、液态含水率的变化规律相似,"峰值"均在积雪中间层,但林地积雪的平均雪密度和平均液态含水率分别为0.48 g/cm3,0.61%,均大于草地0.29 g/cm3,0.52%)林地雪温的"峰值"在积雪表层,而草地在积雪底层,林地平均雪温为-0.032℃,低于草地0.046℃)且雪液态含水率和积雪层温度呈正相关(r=0.611,p<0.05))草地径流小区的产流量和对地表的侵蚀量分别是林地的2,6倍)林地、草地对地表的侵蚀量占总径流量百分比分别为0.21%,0.71%)林地在融雪产流过程中对地表的冲刷作用小于草地,体现了森林的固土作用。研究结果为小尺度探讨积雪消融过程提供理论依据和数据基础。
英文摘要:
      Relying on the Tianshan Forest Ecosystem Positioning Station, fixed observation areas were set in the typical regional forest and grassland, and the snow cover characteristics (snow density, liquid water content and snow temperature), runoff yield, erosion amount and conventional meteorological indicators of the forest and grassland were monitored during the snow melting period, and the snow melting process of forest and grassland was compared and analyzed. The results showed that the interception of snowfall by canopy of forest was about 56.8% during snow melting period, the average snow cover depth of grassland was 2.5 times that of forest. The decline rate of snow depth in the forest was higher than that in grassland at the late stage of snowmelt runoff, which due to the snow intercepted by the canopy fell under gravity. The producing time of snowmelt runoff was earlier in forest than that in grassland, and the variation of snow cover density and liquid water content in forest and grassland was similar during the runoff period, and the peak value was in the middle layer of snow, however, the average snow density and average liquid water content of the snow in the forest were 0.48 g/cm3 and 0.61%, which were both greater than those in the grassland (0.29 g/cm3and 0.52%). The peak value of the snow temperature in the forest was on the surface of the snow, while that in the grassland was on the bottom of the snow, the average snow temperature of the forest was -0.032℃, which was lower than the grassland by 0.046℃. And the liquid water content of the snow was significantly positively correlated with the temperature of the snow layer (r=0.611, p<0.05). The runoff yield and surface erosion of grassland runoff plot were twice and six times as much as those of forest. The percentage of surface erosion of forest and grassland to total runoff was 0.21% and 0.71%, respectively. The scouring effect of snowmelt runoff to the surface in forest is smaller than that in the grassland during the process of snowmelt runoff production, which reflected the soil consolidation of the forest. The research results provided theoretical basis and data basis for small-scale study of snow melting process.
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