文章摘要
吴晓妮1,2,3, 付登高1, 段昌群1, 闫 曦1, 蒋 霞1.柴河流域种植方式与沟渠类型对农田径流氮、磷含量的影响[J].水土保持学报,2016,(6):38~42
柴河流域种植方式与沟渠类型对农田径流氮、磷含量的影响
Effects of Planting Modes and Agriculture Drainage Ditches on Runoff Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentration in Chaihe Watershed
  
DOI:10.13870/j.cnki.stbcxb.2016.06.007
中文关键词: 农田种植方式; 农田沟渠类型; 氮磷流失  农田地表径流  柴河流域
英文关键词: planting mode  agriculture ditch type  nitrogen and phosphorus loss  surface runoff in farmland  Chaihe watershed
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2012ZX07102-003);国家自然科学基金项目(31360152);云南省应用基础研究项目(2014FD039);云南省高校特色生物资源开发与利用重点实验室开放基金(GXKM201506)
作者单位
吴晓妮1,2,3, 付登高1, 段昌群1, 闫 曦1, 蒋 霞1 1.云南大学生态学与环境学院昆明 650091
2.昆明学院生命科学与技术系,昆明 650214
3.云南省高校特色生物资源开发与利用重点实验室,昆明 650214 
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中文摘要:
      为了解高原湖泊流域内农田种植方式及沟渠类型对雨季径流中固体悬浮物及氮磷浓度变化的影响,在柴河流域不同农田种植方式(蔬菜地、玉米地、大棚种植区)的区域内选择典型自然沟渠及土质沟渠进行自然降雨过程中径流氮、磷含量分析。结果表明:(1)该区域农田径流水体总氮、总磷平均值为27.16,17.18 mg/L,相对地表V类水质限值而言超标严重,溶解态氮与颗粒态磷是氮、磷的主要存在形态,符合面源污染特征;(2)降雨是影响径流污染物含量最重要的因素之一。除此之外,种植方式对总氮(TN)、溶解态氮(DN)及溶解态磷(DP)具有显著影响(P<0.05),而沟渠类型对污染物含量的影响不显著(P>0.05);(3)在同一降雨量(18.05 mm)条件下,蔬菜地及大棚区的农田径流氮含量(TN:32.26 mg/L和29.02 mg/L,DN:21.33 mg/L和17.46 mg/L)显著高于玉米地(TN:18.33 mg/L,DN:6.23 mg/L),大棚区径流的磷素含量(TP:17.46 mg/L,DP:2.16 mg/L)则显著高于蔬菜地(TP:6.89 mg/L,DP:1.38 mg/L)及玉米地(TP:7.92 mg/L,DP:0.64 mg/L);自然沟渠相对于土质沟渠可以显著降低径流中的总磷(TP)、DN及DP含量(P<0.05)。研究结果表明在同一降雨量条件下,土地种植方式仍是影响柴河流域面源污染的主要因素,沟渠虽然可以有效降低面源污染含量,但其影响却小于土地种植方式。因此建议在流域面源污染控制及水土保持过程中,首先需要对流域原有种植结构进行优化,然后在此基础上实现对现有沟渠生态化水平的改造与提升,以增加对面源污染物的控制效能。
英文摘要:
      In order to understand the effects of planting modes and agriculture drainage ditches, nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, and suspended solids characteristics of the runoff in different types of agriculture drainage ditches from different planting area (vegetable area, corn field and greenhouse area) in the Chaihe watershed were analyzed based on the survey and monitoring of water samples under natural rainfall. The main results are as follows: (1) The average total nitrogen(TN) and total phosphorus(TP) contents (27.16 mg/L and 17.18 mg/L) in runoff were much higher than class V surface water quality standard limits in China, and the dissolved nitrogen (DN) and particulate phosphate were the main pollutants; (2) Rainfall was one of the most important factors influencing runoff pollutant contents, and planting mode also had the significant effect on TN, DN, and dissolved phosphorus (DP) (P<0.05); (3) When the rainfall was the same (18.05 mm), the higher contents of nitrogen in runoff from vegetable area and greenhouse area (TN: 32.26 mg/L, 29.02 mg/L; DN: 21.33 mg/L, 17.46 mg/L) and the higher phosphorus contents from vegetable area (TP: 17.46 mg/L, DP: 2.16 mg/L) were found. In addition, we also found that natural ditches would significantly decrease the contents of total phosphorus, dissolved nitrogen, and dissolved phosphorus (P<0.05). In conclusion, planting mode was one of the main factors influencing non-point source pollution in the same rainfall. Though ditch can decrease effectively non-point source pollution, the contribution of ditch was less than the planting mode. Based on the above results, the planting structure of the watershed should be optimized at first, and then the transform of the existing ditches and the promotion of the ecological level are also needed to increase the control efficiency of the non-point source pollution.
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